Institutional Reform in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, & Tajikistan 12
G. Implementation Arrangements 21
H. Management Arrangements 22
I. Coordination Arrangements 23
J. Reporting Requirements 23
K. EU Visibility 23
L. Other Obligations of the Contractor 23
BOMCA 6 Logical Framework Matrix
Contract Annex III: Budget Breakdown
1. The emergence of five new states from the break up of the former USSR has created thousands of kilometers of new international borders in Central Asia. These borders need to be controlled while at the same time being made more open for travel and trade. Due to the slow demarcation of borders, lack of resources, and new migration flows, border guards and other border authorities face continued challenges in managing their borders.
2. To address these needs, the EC has launched the Border Management Assistance programme in Central Asia (BOMCA). BOMCA is an integrated, multi-faceted intervention with a developmental and institution building approach. BOMCA aims at increasing the effectiveness of borders whilst fostering security, stability and development in Central Asian states.
3. The European Commission’s assistance policy in Central Asia is coherent with Article 177 of the Treaty establishing the European Community and the recognition that development cooperation shall foster: a) sustainable economic and social development of the developing countries, and in particular the most disadvantaged amongst them; b) the smooth and gradual integration of the developing countries into the world economy; c) the campaign against poverty in developing countries. The Treaty also indicates that EC’s development policy should contribute to the general objective of developing and consolidating democracy and the rule of law, and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
4. BOMCA 6 is to be funded under the European Commission TACIS budget line for external assistance, Regional Action Programme 2005.
B. Borders & Border Management in Central Asia
5. Following accession to independence, the five former Soviet Republics of Central Asia have faced the problem of both new, formerly internal, borders and the protection of the external borders of the former Soviet Union, notably with China, Afghanistan and Iran. Border protection was previously ensured by the Russian Federal Border Service and some of the new independent States have had to create and develop their own border management capacities only very recently.
6. Such capacities are particularly important in order to improve trade and transit within the region, and in order to address cross-border crime. The UNDP Regional Human Development Report for Central Asia (December 2005) indicates the major benefits for economic development that would accrue from an increase in cross-border trade, whilst issues of clandestine immigration, money laundering, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, terrorism, etc., require a commensurate strengthening of assistance and cooperation.
7 The Ferghana Valley is located within the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. A combination of high population density, ethnic variety and disastrous gerrymandering by Soviet planners, has created one of the most curious border patterns in the world, but has failed to properly join the various ethnic groups with their Republics. After the fall of the Soviet Union, communities found themselves divided from family, services and property, with inadequate arrangements for cross-border trade and transit.
8 A focus on border control to meet immediate security threats has restricted the flow of legitimate goods and local people, which is reflected in negative public attitudes to border regimes. The result has been a steady flow of border transgressions, some of which have escalated into violent incidents. These have raised social and inter-governmental tensions, with the potential to endanger security and stability not only in the Ferghana but for the Central Asia region as a whole.
9. The organization of border management in all Central Asian countries follows a division of responsibilities between Agencies inherited from the Soviet Union. The primary Agency in each country remains the Border Guard Service, the first line of military defense in the case of external aggression. In addition to its duties in regard to border control, the Border Guard Service has a counter-intelligence function and in most countries (not Kyrgyzstan) reports through the National Security Agency to the Presidential apparatus.
10. The Soviet methodology for border guarding is characterized by a military garrisoning of the green border. Border outposts, at intervals of 10-15km, provide stations from which small platoons are organized on foot patrols to keep the border under surveillance. At Border Crossing Points, passport and visa checks are rigorous and time-consuming; in Central Asia generally, there is little concept or practice of profiling in regard to cross-border movement.
11 Border Guard Services are in general poorly equipped and work out of sub-standard facilities and infrastructure at the borders. The majority of soldiers are conscripts, required to give one or two years service for food, accommodation and a small allowance each month. Training capacities are uniformly weak, and conscripts can expect only basic military training. Morale is often poor, and Border Guard commands must continually combat corruption within the ranks.
12. Customs Services in Central Asia are usually better resourced than their Border Guard counterparts, given that the Service retains a percentage of the Government revenues it generates. However, with the exception of Kazakhstan, Customs rarely have the modern detection equipment necessary to facilitate swift movement of cargo or to enforce modern European standards of security (x-ray machines, particularly container scanners, dosimeters, drug/explosive particle detectors).
13. Since formation of the Customs Services in Central Asia in the beginning of the 1990s, corruption has been a major problem, and countries require support to combat corrupt practices such as purchase of posts overseeing Border Crossing Points, under-reporting of legitimate cargoes, complicity in trafficking, and extortion of unofficial payments.
14. Other Agencies normally associated with border management are often physically absent from the borders in Central Asia. The Ministry of Interior police have no jurisdiction in border zones, and, in general, neither the sanitary, phyto-sanitary or transport Agencies has the resources to be present at the majority of Border Crossing Points. National Security Agencies are well-represented.
15. Given the military nature and national security focus of the Border Guard Agencies, the potential for cross-border collaboration with counterparts is limited. In general, formal meetings between counterparts do happen on a regular basis, at national and local levels. However, useful as such contact is, there is no legal or institutional basis for the sort of cross-border law enforcement cooperation that is regarded as best practice in Europe.
C. Objectives of the BOMCA Programme
16 The overall objectives of the BOMCA Programme are:
to encourage Central Asian states to gradually adopt the principles and practices of a European Union Integrated Border Management approach;
to contribute toward the facilitation of legitimate trade and transit;
a reduction in the illicit movement of goods and people.
D. BOMCA Programme Strategy
17 Increased levels of cross-border trade are understood as vital to the economic development of the landlocked countries of Central Asia. Restrictions on trade, particularly in populated areas such as the Fergana Valley, are a potential cause of instability as well as a contributory factor in widespread poverty. The recent UNDP Regional Human Development Report for Central Asia provides survey results that indicate a widespread perception that borders negatively impact on lives and livelihoods. Reduced cross-border trading costs would have a disproportionately positive impact on the economic situation of the poorest.
18 BOMCA will contribute toward improved inter-regional trade, providing infrastructure improvement, equipment and training for Border Agency staff at selected Border Crossing Points on targeted transit corridors. BOMCA work will be closely coordinated with other EC, EU and international donor assistance projects aimed at developing more favourable customs regimes, harmonized reform of administrative barriers to trade, road and rail infrastructure improvement.
19 Enhanced border security in Central Asia is necessary to reduce the cross-border movement of militants, weapons, radioactive materials and drugs. Trafficking, and the corruption that allows it and feeds from it, threatens to undermine the political process and rule of law in a number of Central Asian countries, and poses a growing threat to stability and development in the region.
20 BOMCA will contribute to enhanced border security through advocacy and technical assistance for an Integrated Border Management (IBM) approach, through capacity building of Border Agencies, and through demonstration projects at the borders.
21 The European Union IBM approach was developed to balance the twin objectives of trade facilitation and enhanced security, and is built upon three key pillars:
22 The European Commission has developed Guidelines for IBM for the Western Balkans, which serve as a model for application of a European approach around the world. A new European Agency for border management, FRONTEX, has been established in Warsaw, Poland, with a mandate to support the implementation of IBM in the European Union and neighboring states.
23 Improved intra-service cooperation requires major investment in infrastructure, equipment and training that is more usually targeted toward professional rather than conscript forces.
24 The common structural division between border guard detachments responsible for border crossing points and for patrolling the green border should be replaced by a unified command, with fewer officers trained to do both jobs, and rotated between the two. Mobile teams should replace ill-equipped foot-patrols, reducing the number of border outposts required. Modern communications is a prerequisite both for mobile patrols and for connecting border crossing points with Agency HQs. Border Guards need access to central immigration databases and Customs require data communications to speed administrative processing. Corruption is reduced by central automated record-keeping rather than local manually generated records.
25. Institutional change is required to allow and to regulate improved inter-Agency cooperation. The establishment of inter-Agency interdiction teams at the green border, and of inter-Agency profiling units at seaports and airports, both demand regulatory definition in terms of lead roles and budget responsibility. Training Border Guards in Customs work at local border crossing points could generate significant cost-savings, but would require legislative change.
26 Improved international cooperation - whether in terms of regional or bilateral exchange of intelligence, joint law enforcement operations, or the creation of joint border crossing points - requires Security Sector Reform. Although joint customs control is currently feasible with a minimum of legislative change, the structure and role of the Border Guard Services effectively precludes joint working.
27 The experience of Central and Eastern European Union countries demonstrates that the process of institutional reform requires a medium-term transition strategy and significant investment to achieve more effective, and ultimately more cost-efficient, border management.
28 In order to generate the necessary political will to reform border management in Central Asia, it is necessary to convince decision-makers in each country of the benefits of such an approach, through political advocacy by the EC and EU Member States, through the provision of high-level European Union technical expertise to develop credible reform strategies, and through medium-term commitment to co-funding of the transition process.
29 In parallel with institutional reform, capacity building of Border Agencies is a prerequisite for improving border management in Central Asia.
30 Transfer of European skills and experience will only be sustainable if allied to the development of training institutions as permanent resources to the countries of Central Asia.
31 Following independence, newly created Border Guard and Customs Services have struggled to establish high-quality national training facilities in most countries for junior officers. The Kyrgyz Border Guard Service has no national training centre; the Uzbek Border Guard Service has an unfinished complex of buildings at Termez; Turkmen Customs and Border Guard facilities are inadequate; the Tajiks inherited unsuitable and dilapidated premises from the Russians Border Guards and are in need of a new national training centre for Customs.
32 Excellent regional centres for training of dogs and dog handlers exist in Almaty, Kazakhstan, and in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, but Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan either have no national dog training facilities, or small centres without breeding programmes or re-training capacities.
33 BOMCA capacity building for IBM adoption comprises six major areas of further activities:
Production & dissemination of a Handbook for IBM Implementation in Central Asia, endorsed by the European Commission;
Familiarisation of senior Commanders with IBM concepts and practices, and promotion of regional cooperation, through study tours and conferences;
Construction/renovation and equipping of training centres for Border Guards and Customs, and national dog handling centres on a multi-Agency basis;
Study tours for training centre Directors and their staff to counterpart institutions within the European Union, to transfer European skills and experience in regard to training centre operation as well as curricula and pedagogical techniques;
Training curricula development in line with European Union Integrated Border Management methodologies and the core curriculum for border guard developed for the EU and promoted by FRONTEX;
A “training-of-trainers” programme for training centre instructors to be implemented through a regional training centre provided by the Kazakh Border Guard Service.
Strengthening infrastructure Capacities Along Trade Corridors in Central Asia 34 The benefits of a European Union Integrated Border Management approach need to be demonstrated on a pilot basis in each country, in order to achieve a consensus in favour of change at the level of technical counterparts, and in order to achieve the political will necessary to initiate the institutional reform required for roll-out of IBM nationally.
35 A transit corridor approach has been taken for three reasons:
to maximize synergies with national and international efforts to promote inter-regional trade;
because approximately 70% of cross-border illegal trafficking occurs along established transit routes;
because work at busier BCPs is better suited to demonstrating the full scope of benefit of European border management methodologies.
36 Based on a report commissioned from Professor Richard Pomfret “Evaluation of the Trade Facilitation Impact of the BOMCA Programme”, and in line with national and regional priorities to develop the E 40 road which links Central Asia to Western Europe, the following transit corridors have been selected for development:
Corridor 1: Western Central Asia Corridor linking Ashgabat to Aktau and Astrakhan (E 40 link road) by developing a BCP at Kunia-Urgench on the Turkmen side of the Turkmen / Uzbek border;
Corridor 2: Eastern Central Asia Corridor linking Dushanbe via Osh to Almaty by developing a BCP Karamyk on the Tajik side of the Tajik / Kyrgyz Border;
Corridor 3 Fergana Valley Corridor linking Tashkent to Osh by developing the Border Crossing Point (BCP) at Fortekabot and Patar on the Tajik side of the Uzbek/ Tajik border.
37 BOMCA is concerned with internal rather than external borders of Central Asia, with the exception of Central Asia’s borders with Afghanistan, a development and security priority for the European Commission and other international actors.
38 Border Crossing Points for further activities under BOMCA Phase 6 have been selected according to a Feasibility Study on Trade Corridors undertaken under BOMCA Phase 5, and approved by the European Commission. BOMCA Phase 6 will focus attention on Border Crossing Points on above trade corridors.
39 Further activities at the selected Border Crossing Points will comprise:
Construction/renovation of infrastructure;
Provision of communications & appropriate equipment;
Training and mentoring of Border Agency staff.
Establishment of baseline indicators, success criteria and results monitoring
40 Subject to access to information necessary to establish baseline indicators, key success measurements of each activity should include surveys of freight forwarders and hauliers in regard to improved journey times and a reduction in the number of unofficial payments demanded; increased Government revenue through improved recording and collection of Customs duties.
41 It is considered particularly important to convey the potential cost-benefits of an IBM approach to Central Asian countries, in order to convince Governments that the transition to a more European style system of border management can be self-financing over the medium-term.
42 Development projects to enhance the economic circumstances of impoverished communities adjacent to the transit corridors will be a focus of separate UNDP activities, particularly in the Ferghana Valley. These activities are implemented at national and local levels of all provinces, and they include:
a. Poverty Reduction Programme works with local self-governments and poor communities to develop sustainable small and medium enterprises;
b. Peace and Development Programme works to strengthen local and national capacities to prevent and reduce existing and potential conflicts. The program will also work with BOMCA/CADAP and provide assistance in the improvement of key border crossings and enhance cooperation between and among cross-border communities; and advocate and mainstream conflict prevention;
c. Democratic Governance Programme works to strengthen institutional structures for effective provision of public services and development and implementation of strategies and action plans;
d. Disaster Management Programme focuses its activities on prevention of natural disasters, particularly in the Ferghana valley. It aims to improve capacities of communities and local governments to assess risks, prevent and respond to disasters.
Assisting Tajikistan in Securing the Tajik-Afghan Border in Gorno-Badakhsan area
43 Because of the high degree of international concern, and especially European
Union concern, for security related to the borders of Afghanistan, a major international
effort is underway to improve border security in Tajikistan, particularly on the Tajik-
Afghan border, and the BOMCA Programme continues to play a lead role in both
providing and coordinating assistance in cooperation with the Government. Over the last
three years and with additional funding from the Government of the UK, the European
Commission has constructed three Border Crossing Points in the Gorno Badakshan
Autonomous Oblast (GBAO), and renovated/constructed three Border Outposts. The
Tajik-Afghan border will continue to be a focus of BOMCA 6 with planned renovation of
the remaining un-renovated boder outposts in GBAO.
E. Previous Phases of Cooperation
44 The first phase of BOMCA (BOMCA 1) implemented a general assessment of border guard capacities in central Asia (Budget ‘ATA’: 155,000 Euro, April-August 2003).
45 The second phase of BOMCA (BOMCA 2) launched the first phase of training for border guard officers. The project developed training modules, identified border management contact points, implemented a train-the-trainers session in Vienna and a regional training in modern border management in Central Asia (Budget ‘RRM’, 663,200 Euro, July-December 2003).
46 The third phase of BOMCA prepared the ground for BOMCA 4. The budget of 836,000 Euro (RRM) funded 13 projects to be implemented between December 2003 and May 2004. BOMCA 3 provided experts who assessed the situation in beneficiary countries in the relevant fields. BOMCA 3 also provided training to border guard services and equipment to support existing training capabilities in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Equipment was furthermore provided to Kazakhstan to support its regional border guard dog training centre, and to Uzbekistan in support of two border posts to manage asylum seekers and refugees.
47 BOMCA 4, in the amount of 8,580,000 Euro, covers the period January 2004 to September 2007, in two separate financial allocations: BOMCA 4.1 amounting to 3,000,000 Euro from the Central Asia Action Programme 2002, plus 300,000 Euro as UNDP co-financing contribution, and BOMCA 4.2 amounting to 4,800,000 Euro from Central Asia Action Programme 2003 plus 480,000 Euro in UNDP cost-sharing. BOMCA 4 comprises ten projects: legal assistance; construction of training infrastructure; training of border staff; a study tour to Europe for high-ranking officers; computer based training; visa management at airports; creation of mobile units in pilot regions; reinforcement of border crossing points; reinforcement of national border dog capacities; coordination amongst international donors.
48 BOMCA 5, in the amount of 4,620,000 Euro, including 10% UNDP cost-sharing, runs from March 2006 to December 2007, and is funded from the Central Asia Action Programme 2003. The immediate objectives of BOMCA 5 are improved training capacities for Border Agencies in Turkmenistan; training of border staff in all five Central Asia countries; reinforced border management in pilot regions in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
49 Demonstration projects at Border Crossing Points under BOMCA 5 include Karasu (Kyrgyz-Uzbek) and Ak-Jol (Kyrgyz-Kazakh) crossings in Kyrgyzstan, and first phase construction of Kunia Urgench crossing (Turkmenistan-Uzbekistan) in Turkmenistan. In addition, a number of border posts are being constructed in the Uzbek Fergana, provision of which is linked to a resumption of the Uzbek national demining effort.
F. Description of BOMCA 6 Project 1(Specific Objective):
Institutional Reform in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, & Tajikistan
External Expertise: General Istvan Samu (Project Leader), Deputy Commander of the Hungarian Border Service, and senior Hungarian Border Service Staff
BOMCA CTA(s): CTA for Kazakhstan
CTA for Kyrgyzstan
CTA for Tajikistan
Justification: Following intensive work with technical-level counterparts under the Programme, and high-level discussions between the EC Delegation and the Kyrgyz Government, an initial mission was undertaken to develop Terms of Reference to establish a strategy for border management reform in the Kyrgyz Republic. Terms of Reference have now been agreed with the Kyrgyz Government and the EC, and this project will implement the TORs and develop a detailed and costed reform strategy for Government approval.
Following withdrawal of Russian Border Forces in 2005, Tajikistan has been fully responsible for managing its own borders. Tajikistan has received considerable assistance from the international community to build its border management capacities. The BOMCA Programme sponsored a conference in Dushanbe in September 2005 in which a Statement of Mutual Intents was signed between donors and Government in regard to a partnership approach, and organizes monthly donor coordination meetings. However, a possible increase in drug trafficking, consequent upon increased production of heroin in Afghanistan, requires a renewed effort to ensure coordination of donor efforts, and the articulation of donor efforts to a transparent and comprehensive national strategy for border management.
In Kazakhstan, a discussion on the desirability of introducing reform of its Border Guard will be initiated.
Objective: To support the Kyrgyz & Tajik Governments in the revision of existing, or preparation of new border management strategies, and to initiate discussions with appropriate authorities in Kazakhstan aimed at the same or similar result
Detailed and costed border management strategies prepared with and for the Governments of Kyrgyzstan & Tajikistan;
One international donor conference on border management held;
Agreement by the Kazakh authorities to consider reform of its Border Guard force;
Future EC BOMCA Programme activities defined.
1.1.1 Initial assessment of current Border Management situation to be undertaken by СТА for Tajikistan and СТА and Project Leader for Kyrgyzstan (ICMPD assistance to identify international experts);
Bi-annual technical level donor coordination meetings to be hosted and serviced in three countries;
Advocate for development of a new strategy for border management (Kyrgyzstan); revise existing strategy (Tajikistan and Kazakhstan);
Organise & hold border management donor conferences in each of three countries to be hosted by the Government to share updated border management strategies with international donors;
1.3.1 Continue IBM discussion with the Kazakh and Kyrgyz authorities (ICMPD assistance to identify international experts);
Prepare costed projects for implementation by BOMCA under subsequent phases of the Programmes to adjust activities if required due to possible cancellation / changes in currently planned projects;
Organize and conduct cross-border workshops (two on Kyrgyz-Kazakh border and two on Kyrgyz-Tajik border) for improved regional cooperation;
Conduct two study tours for Inter-Agency Working Group members of the three countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) one in 2008 and one in 2009 to support participation of Border Guard Commanders in annual Border Guard Conferences, Siofok, Hungary
Indicators: Assessment reports, meeting minutes, border management strategies, donor conference records, final reports
Risks: Absence of political will to reform border management strategies; continued donor interest/support for border management in CA.
Countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
Inputs/Budget: Consultancy Fees
Travel & per diems
Conference organisation costs
Project 2 (Specific Objective):
Strengthening Training Capacities in Central Asia Prime Responsibilities
BOMCA CTA(s): CTA for Kazakhstan (Regional training components)
CTA for Kyrgyzstan (Regional IBM components)
External Expertise: International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) & Austrian Ministry of Interior (Austria).
Justification: Under previous phases of the Programme, BOMCA has developed a Handbook for the Implementation of IBM in Central Asia, in collaboration with ICMPD and the EC’s thematic unit responsible for border management (AIDCO Directorate E5). Technical-level Inter-Agency Working Groups have been established in each country, to agree new models and practices for border management, and to recommend to decision-makers legislative or regulatory change necessary to their adoption. BOMCA needs to continue to sensitise technical-level counterparts to the benefits of the European Union IBM approach and develop consensus amongst national counterpart in favour of institutional reform.
As one of the consequences of the deterioration of relations between the EU and Uzbekistan, the EC Action Programme (AP) 2005 has not been signed and the assistance envisaged under BOMCA 6 will not be provided to Uzbek beneficiaries except for regional training activities conducted out of Uzbekistan. The project will initiate first-phase construction of a multi-Agency National Dog Training School in Kyrgyzstan (to be completed under BOMCA 7). Work to develop core curricula for the border management training in on-going under BOMCA 5, to be followed by roll-out of a ‘training-of-trainers’ programme by international experts (BOMCA 5 & 6). Study tours will be organized to European training institutions to familiarize and sensitise senior Training Centre management in CA to European approaches in regard to Centre organization & pedagogical methods.
Objective: To support all countries of Central Asia to develop training capacities for the introduction of European Union integrated border management methodologies.
2.1 IBM Handbook for Central Asia endorsed by the European Commission;
2.2 Senior Commanders familiarized with concepts and practices of European Union IBM approach;
2.3 First phase construction of Kyrgyz Dog Training Centre completed; Central Asian Training Centre teaching staff trained;
Second Phase construction of a dormitory wing in the National Border Guard Training Centre of Kyrgyzstan in Novopokrovka (Phase 2) as well as and procurement of equipment;
Construction and equipment for Border Guard Training Centre in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan;
Fifty dogs and dog handlers trained for work on CA borders.
Long term inter agency strategy for drug detecting dogs implemented in Tajikistan.
2.1.1 Finalise IBM Handbook for Central Asia, prior to European Commission endorsement; (ICMPD responsibility)
Organise & implement Study Tour to FRONTEX in Poland, for senior Border Agency staff (Commanders or deputy Commanders); support participation of Border Guard Commanders in annual Border Guard Conference, Siofok, Hungary, 2008; (ICMPD responsibility)
Organise & implement regional conference in CA on IBM for national Governments under CABSI umbrella;
2.3.1 Design, contract and monitor construction of a multi-agency dog training centre for Kyrgyzstan;
2.4.1 Design, contract and monitor construction of a dormitory wing in the National Border Guard Training Centre of Kyrgyzstan in Novopokrovka (Phase 2) and procure and deliver necessary equipment;
2.5.1 Renovate and equip the Border Guard Training Centre in
2.6.1 Design, monitor & construct Dog Center for the State Border Service in, Turkmenistan;
2.7.1. Organise & implement training-of-trainers for CA training
centre staff at regional Training Centre in Almaty (ICMPD assistance to identify international trainers);
2.8.1 Organise two three-month dog training courses for 25 participants each (five from each CA country) at Tashkent and Almaty Training Centres;
2.9.1 Organise deployment of an International specialist to Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to develop, oversee implementation and monitor a long term inter agency strategy for drug detecting dogs (ICMPD assistance to identify international trainers).
Indicators: Central Asia IBM Handbook endorsed by European Commission, study tours arranged & conferences attended, regional conference held, training facilities constructed & operational, European Union visibility enhanced, training centre staff trained, fifty dogs & dog handlers trained. Long term inter agency strategy for drug detecting dogs implemented in Tajikistan, which could be replicated elsewhere.
Risks: Timely EC endorsement process for IBM Handbook; changes to technical-level counterparts and/or reduction in political will.
Countries: All Central Asian countries, with construction/equipment benefiting Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.
Strengthening Infrastructure Capacities Along Trade Corridors in Central Asia External Expertise: Richard Pomfret (UK), Professor of Economics, University of Adelaide, Australia
BOMCA CTA(s): CTA for Uzbekistan
Justification: Institutional change in regard to border management is only likely to be agreed by Central Asian Governments when they are convinced that European Union IBM methods are more effective and cost-efficient than current practices. Advocacy and capacity building for IBM implementation need to be supported by pilot projects with measurable success indicators, monitored by Government and international experts.
A transit corridors approach is proposed for three reasons:
Increased levels of cross-border and inter-regional trade are vital to economic development in landlocked Central Asia;
Approximately 70% of illicit trafficking follows established trade routes;
European Union best practices in border management can be demonstrated to best effect at busier airports/seaports/land border crossings.
Objective: To demonstrate to Central Asian Governments the benefits of a European Union IBM approach to border management, both to facilitate trade & transit and to enhance control & security, through model projects at Border Crossing Points on major Central Asian trade corridors. Expected Results: 3.1 Three Border Crossing Points modernized;
Border Agency staff trained at modernized BCPs;
Increased effectiveness and efficiency of European Union IBM methods demonstrated to Central Asian Governments.
Activities: 3.1.1 Design, monitor & construct BCPs at Patar, Tajikistan;
Procure & deliver equipment to BCP Patar and Fortekabot;
Organise handover/visibility events for Patar and Fortekabot;
Organise & implement training for Border Agency staff at 5 BCPs (including Karasu & Ak Jol – Kordai);
3.1.5 Organise seminar on trade & transit facilitation jointly with UNECE participation in Ashgabat;
3.1.6 Advocate for closer cooperation with other interested parties regarding Trade Corridors (CAREC, EurAsEC, etc)
Indicators: Renovated/constructed BCPs operational, training provided to all relevant staff.
Risks: Government accept running costs and maintenance of border infrastructure & equipment provided; trainees have correct profile & remain in post for duration of project; legitimate trade is deterred at modernized border crossings due to imposition of all due Government customs duties & import tariffs.
Countries: Tajikistan will benefit from activities 3.1.1, 3.1.2 and 3.1.3 for construction/renovation of facilities and provision of equipment.
Kyrgyzstan will benefit from all other activities, to be conducted at Karasu on the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border and at Ak Jol – Kordai on the Kyrgyz-Kazakh border.
Inputs/Budget: Fees & per diems for Project Leader
Fees & per diems for trainers/mentors
Design & construction contracts
Project 4 (Specific Objective):
Assisting Tajikistan in Securing the Tajik-Afghan Border in Gorno-Badakhshan area
Justification: Because of the high degree of international concern, and especially European Union concern, for security related to the borders of Afghanistan, a major international effort is underway to improve border security in Tajikistan, particularly on the Tajik-Afghan border, and the BOMCA Programme continues to play a lead role in both providing and coordinating assistance in cooperation with the Government. Over the last three years and with additional funding from the Government of the UK, the European Commission has constructed three Border Crossing Points in the Gorno Badakshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO), and renovated/constructed three Border Outposts. The Tajik-Afghan border will continue to be a focus of BOMCA 6 with planned renovation of the remaining un-renovated boder outposts in GBAO.
Objective: To assist Tajikistan in securing the Tajik-Afghan Border in Gorno-Badakhshan area by modernizing Border Outposts.
Expected Results: 4.1 Three Border Outposts modernized;
Activities: 4.1.1 Design, construct & equip 3 Border Outposts at the Tajik-
Afghan Border, namely Khorogskaya, Shids and Pastkhuv;
Procure & deliver equipment to 3 Border Outposts;
Organise handover/visibility events for 3 Border Outposts.
Organise repair works at Dashty Yazgulam Border Outpost
Renovated/constructed Border Outposts operational
Government accept running costs and maintenance of border outpost infrastructure & equipment provided
Objectively Verifiable indicators:
Inputs/Budget: Design & construction contracts
G. Implementation Arrangements
BOMCA 6 Programme (€6 million from the EC, €0.66 million from UNDP) will be implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) under direct grant agreement with the European Commission Delegation based in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The Principal UNDP Office for the implementation of the BOMCA Programme in Central Asia will be UNDP Kyrgyzstan. (UNDP terminology: Executing Agency). UNDP will provide a 9.09% cost-sharing contribution to the BOMCA 6 Programme. Technical staff of UNDP Kyrgyzstan will be responsible for ensuring that appropriate project milestones are managed and completed (UNDP terminology: Project Assurance).
51 The BOMCA Programme will be implemented and managed jointly with its sister CADAP Programme. UNDP is currently contracted to implement the BOMCA 4.2 and BOMCA 5 Programmes, as well as the related CADAP 3 and CADAP 4 Programmes.
52 The salary of the Chief Technical Advisor for Turkmenistan, with regional responsibilities for counter-narcotics, is divided between BOMCA 5 (17%) CADAP 4 (33%) and BOMCA 6 (50%). All costs of the Regional Programme Management Office are divided between BOMCA and CADAP Programmes as the staff are responsible for the management of both Programmes. Similarly, the costs of Chief Technical Advisors, Senior National Advisors, Country Managers and members of Country Teams in all five Central Asian countries including office support costs, are divided between BOMCA and CADAP Programmes.
53 The European Commission Delegation in Almaty, Kazakhstan, will provide guidance to UNDP Kyrgyzstan in regard to the strategic development of the BOMCA Programme. (UNDP terminology: Senior Supplier). A Management Meeting between the EC Delegation and UNDP Kyrgyzstan will be held approximately eight times each year.
54 The European Commission Delegation will liaise with EU Member States and the office of the EU Special Representative for Central Asia in regard to development and implementation of the BOMCA Programme.
55 An annual CABSI meeting, to be held in Central Asia, and to be funded by BOMCA, will provide a forum for discussion between the European Commission, Member States and UNDP in regard to implementation and direction of the Programme.
56 The main beneficiaries (UNDP terminology: Senior Beneficiaries) are the Governments of five Central Asian countries. National Steering Committees (UNDP terminology: Project Board) will be held in each country on a bi-annual basis, in order to review implementation progress and discuss national priorities for inclusion in future phases of the BOMCA Programme. The National Steering Committees consist of the main stakeholders including but not limited to the EC, UNDP, the Border Guards, the Customs Agencies, Drug Control Agencies, Ministries of Health, Education and Justice, m the five countries.
57 Implementation of BOMCA will be subject to external Programme monitoring to be organized by the European Commission Delegation under a separate EC-funded contract. Monitoring will be organized and conducted in line with Article 8 of the General Conditions of this agreement.
H. Management Arrangements
58 Project design for the BOMCA 6 Programme will be undertaken by five Chief Technical Advisors (CTAs) based in each country of Central Asia. CTAs will be supported in this task by non-resident technical experts or organisations with specific technical expertise and experience relevant to each area of activity:
59 It is anticipated that Project Leaders will include:
Institutional Reform projects: A senior figure from the Border Force of a European Union Member State;
IBM capacity building projects: Specialists recommended by the Austrian Ministry of Interior, CABSI, and the International Centre for Migration Policy Development;
Trade Corridor projects: An internationally recognised academic specializing in Central Asian trade.
60 Chief Technical Advisors (CTAs) will provide technical inputs to UNDP in regard to project implementation, including training in their particular field of expertise. CTAs will be supported by Senior National Experts in each country, and interpreters as required.
61 Chief Technical Advisors will liaise closely with European Union Embassies in Central Asia, to ensure appropriate political- and technical-level coordination (see coordination arrangements).
62 A UNDP Regional Programme Manager will be responsible for the timely implementation of all activities of the Programme, for its financial management, for the supervision of all staff and for all reporting to the EC Project Manager in the European Commission Delegation.
63 Under the leadership of the Regional Programme Manager, a Regional Programme Management Unit (RPMO) based in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, will provide administrative reporting, accounting and procurement services to the BOMCA Programme.
64 The Regional Programme Manager will be supported by national Deputies, based in Bishkek. In each country, national Country Managers will be responsible for UNDP delivery of projects designed by the technical staff: Chief Technical Advisors, Project Leaders and Senior National Experts report to the Regional Programme Manager. Country Managers and Deputy Country Managers report jointly to the BOMCA Regional Programme Management Office in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and to local UNDP Country Offices.
I. Coordination Arrangements
65 Coordination with other EC/EU assistance efforts, with work of other donors, and with national efforts to improve border management is considered essential to the successful implementation of the BOMCA Programme. Regular donor coordination meetings will be called by BOMCA CTAs in the country to which they are posted.
66 BOMCA’s strategy will be coordinated with the European Commission’s Thematic Unit responsible for border management and justice & home affairs (EuropeAid Unit E5, Unit for Operations Quality Support, Security & Migration).
J. Reporting Requirements
67 An Inception Report will be submitted within three months of contract signature. Thereafter, progress reports will be prepared on a bi-annual basis, and a final report upon project completion. All reports shall comply with the provisions set out in Article 2 of the General Conditions of the contract.
68 The Inception report will include a detailed work programme. The work programme will define the activities including associated ‘benchmarks’ or ‘indicators of achievement’ for each component and demonstrate how these relate to the programme’s overall and specific objectives, preferably in the form of a logical framework matrix. It shall also describe relevant risks and assumptions and means for verifying achievement of project results and objectives. In addition, the report shall include a detailed description of the project environment.
69 Progress Reports shall describe relevant changes to the project environment, implementation of project activities, progress towards achievement of results and objectives during the reporting period and an updated version of the work programme for the remaining project period.
70 The Final Report shall furthermore include a section on lessons learnt for similar activities in the future.
71 All reports are subject to approval by the European Commission Delegation.
K. EU Visibility
72 Visibility activities comprising a Communications Strategy for the Programme will be submitted to the European Commission Delegation for approval as part of the Inception Report. Implementation of the activities will form an integral part of the contract.
73 Supported by a national Visibility & Events Specialist based in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, Chief Technical Advisors will take primary responsibility for the implementation of EU visibility activities in the country to which they are posted.
L. Other Obligations of the Contractor
74 All other obligations of the Contractor (UNDP) are described in the General Conditions (Annex II to the proposed contract), which complies with the provisions of the Financial and Administrative Framework Agreement between the European Commission and the United Nations signed on 29th April 2003.