TABLE OF CONTENTS 437-004-0310 Working Surfaces D-1
Aisles, walkways, inclines and passageways D-1
Covers and guardrails D-1
Surface loads D-1
Vertical clearances D-1
Working above other workers D-2
437-004-0320 Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes D-2
Floor openings and floor holes D-3
Wall openings and holes D-4
Open-sided floors, platforms, and runways D-4
Stairway railings and guards D-5
Railing, toeboards, and cover specifications D-6
437-004-0330 Fixed Industrial Stairs D-8
Where fixed stairs are required D-9
Stair strength D-9
Stair width D-9
Angle of stairway rise D-10
Stair treads D-10
Stairway platforms D-10
Railings and handrails D-10
Vertical clearance D-10
437-004-0340 Portable Ladders D-11
Ladder selection D-12
Condition of wood ladders D-12
General requirements – all ladders D-12
General requirements – portable stepladders D-13
Use – all ladders D-13
Use of specific types of ladders D-14
437-004-0350 Orchard Ladders D-17
Use and care D-17
437-004-0360 Fixed Ladders D-18
Design requirements D-19
Specific features D-20
Special requirements D-24
437-004-0370 Scaffolding D-29
General requirements for all scaffolds D-30
General requirements for wood pole scaffolds D-31
Tubular welded frame scaffolds D-35
Boatswain’s chairs D-36
Horse scaffolds D-37
Ladder-jack scaffolds D-37
Roofing brackets D-38
Crawling boards or chicken ladders D-38
Manually propelled mobile scaffolds D-38
437-004-0380 Manually Propelled Mobile Ladder Stands and Scaffolds (Towers) D-39
437-004-0390 Other Working Surfaces D-40
Dockboards (bridge plates) D-40
Ramps and runways D-40
437-004-0310 Working Surfaces.
Scope. This section applies to all places of agricultural employment. Measures to control toxic materials are outside the scope of this section.
Housekeeping. Floors, work areas, aisles and passageways must be in good repair and must not have protruding nails, unevenness, obstructions, debris or loose boards that create a hazard.
Aisles, walkways, inclines and passageways.
There must be sufficient clearance for safe operation of mechanical handling equipment in aisles, at loading docks, through doorways and at turns. Aisles and passage- ways must be clear and in good repair with no obstructions that could be a hazard.
Mark permanent aisles and passageways.
Aisles, passageways, and walkways must be wide enough for safe work but never less than 22 inches wide. Passageways more than 4 feet above the ground or floor level must have standard guardrails.
Fixed inclined walkways must be at least 22 inches wide, incline at no more than 24 degrees and be securely fastened at the top and bottom. They must have guardrails on each open side.
Inclined walkways that may be slippery must have anti-slip surfaces or cleats secured at uniform intervals of not more than 18 inches, and extending the full width of the walkway.
Inclines from floor to floor, without open sides, used instead of stairways must have standard handrails according to the requirements for stairways.
Ramps for wheelbarrows, if made of planking, must have an odd number of planks with no cleats on the center plank.
Covers and guardrails. There must be covers and/or guardrails on each open side to protect people from the hazards of open pits, tanks, vats, excavations, etc.
Surface loads. For all new and remodel construction after December 1, 1997, post the load capacities on overhead storage areas. Do not allow overloading.
Barriers. There must be protective barriers or suitable guards for uncovered openings or excavations that are accessible to vehicle or pedestrian traffic. Use warning lights or flares if working at night.
Vertical clearances. There must be a vertical clearance of at least 6 1/2 feet over work areas. Where it is impractical to provide this clearance, use padding, contrasting paint or similar warnings on overhead obstructions.
NOTE: This does not apply to crop storage areas where people are there for short periods.
Working above other workers. Areas above other workers, for handling or mixing acids, caustics, or other harmful materials must have water-tight floors that drain to a safe location, except where workers underneath wear personal protective equipment suitable for the hazard.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4).
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295.
Hist: OR-OSHA Admin. Order 4-1998, f/8/28/98, ef. 10/1/98.
437-004-0320 Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes.
Definitions. Unless otherwise stated, these terms mean:
Floor hole. An opening less than 12 inches but more than 1-inch in its least dimension, in any walking surface, through which materials but not persons may fall. This includes belt holes, pipe openings, or slot openings.
Floor opening. An opening 12 inches or more in its least dimension, in any walking surface through which persons may fall including hatchways, stairs or ladder openings, pits, or large manholes. Floor openings occupied by elevators, dumb waiters, conveyors, machinery, or containers are excluded from this subdivision.
Handrail. A single bar or pipe supported on brackets from a wall or partition, and used as a handhold for persons on stairs or ramps.
Platform. An elevated work space, such as a balcony or mezzanine for the operation of machinery and equipment.
Runway. An elevated passageway, such as a footwalk along shafting or a walkway between buildings.
Stair railing. A vertical barrier along exposed sides of a stairway to prevent people from falling.
Standard railing. A vertical barrier along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway to prevent people from falling.
Standard strength and construction. Any construction of railings, covers, or other guards that meets the requirements of OAR 437-004-0320(6).
Toeboard. A vertical barrier at floor level along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, platform, runway, or ramp to prevent things from falling.
Wall hole. An opening less than 30 inches but more than 1-inch high, of unrestricted width, in any wall or partition; such as a ventilation hole.
Wall opening. An opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which persons may fall; such as a window, doorway or chute opening.
Floor openings and floor holes.
Stairway floor openings must have a standard railing that complies with OAR 437-004-0320(6), on all exposed sides (except at entrance to the stairway). For infrequently used stairways where traffic across the opening prevents the use of a fixed standard railing, the guard must be a hinged floor opening cover of sufficient strength and removable standard railings on all exposed sides (except at entrance to the stairway).
Ladder way floor openings or platforms must have a standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides (except at entrance to opening). The passage through the railing must either have a swinging gate or be offset so that a person cannot walk directly into the opening.
Hatchways and chute floor openings must have one of the following:
Hinged floor opening cover with standard railings. When the opening is not in use, close the cover or guard the exposed sides at both top and intermediate positions by removable standard railings.
A removable railing with toeboard on not more than two sides of the opening and fixed standard railings with toeboards on all other exposed sides. The removable railings must be in place when the opening is not in use.
Where operating conditions necessitate the feeding of material into any hatchway or chute opening, protection must prevent a person from falling through the opening.
Skylight floor openings and holes must have a standard skylight screen or a fixed standard railing on all exposed sides.
Pit and trapdoor floor openings must have a floor opening cover of sufficient strength. While the cover is not on, an attendant must be at the pit or trap opening or there must be removable standard railings on all sides.
Manhole floor openings must have a standard manhole cover that need not be hinged in place. While the cover is off, there must be an attendant at the manhole opening or it must have removable standard railings.
Floor holes into which persons can accidentally walk must have either:
A standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides, or
A floor hole cover of sufficient strength. While the cover is off, the floor hole must have an attendant or a removable standard railing.
Floor holes into which persons cannot accidentally walk must have a cover that leaves no openings more than 1-inch wide. The cover must be securely held in place to prevent tools or materials from falling through.
Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, there must be a platform, and the swing of the door must not reduce the effective length to less than 20 inches.
Wall openings and holes.
Wall openings with a drop of more than 4 feet must have one of the following:
Rail, roller, picket fence, half door, or equivalent barrier. Where there is exposure below to falling materials, there must be a toe board or the equivalent. When the opening is not in use for handling materials, the guard must be in position regardless of a door on the opening. In addition, there must be a grab handle on each side of the opening with its center about 4 feet above floor level and of standard strength and mounting.
Extension platform to receive hoisted materials for handling. It must have side rails or equivalent guards of standard specifications.
Chute wall openings with a drop of more than 4 feet must have one or more of the barriers in (3)(a) above or as required by the conditions.
Window wall openings with a drop of more than 4 feet, and where the bottom of the opening is less than 3 feet above the floor or platform, must have a guard of slats, grill work (as in OAR 437-004-0320(6)(k)), or standard railing.
Where the window opening is below the landing, or platform, there must be a standard toeboard in addition to requirements in (c) above.
Every temporary wall opening must have adequate guards but these need not be of standard construction.
Where there is a hazard of materials falling through a wall hole, and the lower edge of the near side of the hole is less than 4 inches above the floor, and the far side of the hole more than 5 feet above the next lower level, the hole must have a standard toeboard, or a solid enclosing screen, or one as described in OAR 437-004-0320(6)(k).
Open-sided floors, platforms, and runways.
Open-sided floors or platforms 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level must have a standard railing (or the equivalent from OAR 437-004-0320(6)(c)) on all open sides except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The railing must have a toeboard where, beneath the open sides:
Persons can pass,
There is moving machinery, or
There is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard.
When operating conditions make it necessary, the railing may be left off of one side if the platform is at least 18 inches wide.
Exception: When things regularly have to be passed over the edge of the floor, as in hay stor age, there is no requirement for the intermediate railing and toeboard. This exception applies also where the railing is set back from the edge 12 inches or more. There is no requirement for any railing when the employer can show that it creates a greater hazard than working without one.
Runways must have a standard railing (or the equivalent from OAR 437-004-0320 (6)(c)) on all open sides 4 feet or more above floor or ground level. Where the use of tools, machine parts, or materials on the runway is likely, there must be a toeboard on each exposed side.
NOTE: Runways exclusively for special purposes may omit the railing on one side when operating conditions make it necessary, if the runway is at least 18 inches wide. Where per- sons entering runways have exposure to machinery, electrical equipment, or other dangers, additional guarding may be required for protection.
Regardless of height, open-sided floors, walkways, platforms, or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment must have a standard railing and toeboard on open sides.
Stairway railings and guards.
Stairs with four or more risers must have standard stair railings or standard handrails from (A) through (E) below. Measure the width of the stairs clear of all obstructions except handrails:
On stairways less than 44 inches wide with both sides enclosed, at least one handrail, preferably on the right side descending.
On stairways less than 44 inches wide with both sides open, one stair railing on each side.
On stairways more than 44 inches wide but less than 88 inches wide, one handrail on each enclosed side and one stair railing on each open side.
On stairways 88 or more inches wide, one handrail on each enclosed side, one stair railing on each open side, and one intermediate stair railing approximately midway of the width.
Winding stairs must have a handrail offset to prevent walking on any treads less than 6 inches wide.
Railing, toeboards, and cover specifications.
A standard railing must have a top rail, intermediate rail, and posts, and must be between 36 and 44 inches high from the upper surface of the top rail to the walking surface. The top rail must be smooth. The intermediate rail must be about halfway between the top rail and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. The ends of the rails must not overhang the terminal posts except where such overhang is not a projection hazard.
A stair railing must be similar to a standard railing but the height must be between 30 and 36 inches from upper surface of top rail to surface of tread in line with face of the riser at the forward edge of the tread.
For wood railings, the posts must be at least 2-inch by 4-inch stock spaced not to exceed 6 feet; the top and intermediate rails must be at least 2-inch by 4-inch stock. If the top rail is made of two right-angle pieces of 1-inch by 4-inch stock, posts may be spaced on 8-foot centers, with 2-inch by 4-inch intermediate rail.
For pipe railings, posts and top and intermediate railings must be at least 1 1/2 inches nominal diameter with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on center.
For structural steel railings, posts and top and intermediate rails must be of 2-inch by 2-inch by 3/8-inch angles or other metal shapes of equivalent bending strength with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on center.
The anchoring of posts and framing of members for railings of all types must be strong enough that the completed structure can withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail.
Other types, sizes, and arrangements of railing construction are acceptable if they have:
A smooth-surfaced top rail at a height above floor, platform, runway, or ramp level of 42 inches nominal, and;
A strength to withstand at least the minimum requirement of 200 pounds top rail pressure, and;
Protection between top rail and floor, platform, runway, ramp, or stair treads, equivalent at least to that afforded by a standard intermediate rail.
A standard toeboard must be 4 inches nominal in height from its top edge to the level of the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. It must be securely fastened in place and with not more than 1/4-inch clearance above floor level. It may be made of any strong material either solid or with openings not more than 1-inch in greatest dimension.
Where material can fall through the space between the standard toeboard and midrail, there must be paneling or screen from floor to the midrail. If material can fall through the space between the midrail and top rail, there also must be paneling or screen there.
A handrail must have a lengthwise member mounted directly on a wall or partition. Mounting brackets must attach to the lower side of the handrail so that the top and sides are smooth. The handrail must furnish an adequate handhold for anyone grasping it to avoid falling.
Handrails must be 30 to 34 inches in height from the upper surface of the handrail to the surface of the tread in line with the face of the riser or to the surface of the ramp.
Hardwood handrails must be at least 2 inches in diameter. Metal pipe handrails must be at least 1 1/2 inches in diameter. Brackets must be long enough to give at least 1 1/2 inches clearance between handrail and wall. Bracket spacing must be not more than 8 feet.
Handrails must be able to withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the rail.
All handrails and railings must have a clearance of at least 1 1/2 inches between the handrail or railing and any other object.
Floor opening covers may be of any material that meets the following strength requirements:
Trench or conduit covers and their supports must be able to stand a load of at least 20,000 pounds if they are where vehicles can pass over them.
Floor opening covers may be made of any material strong enough to handle the load. Covers may project not more than 1-inch above the floor level if all edges are beveled to an angle with the horizontal of not more than 30 degrees. All hinges, handles, bolts, or other parts must be flush with the floor or cover surface.
Skylight screens must be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied perpendicularly on the screen. They must be strong enough that under ordinary loads or impacts, they will not deflect downward sufficiently to break the glass below them. Those with grillwork must have openings not more than 4 inches square. Those of slatwork must have openings not more than 2 inches wide with length unrestricted.
Wall opening barriers (rails, rollers, picket fences, and half doors) must be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction (except upward) on the top rail or corresponding member.
Wall opening grab handles must be not less than 12 inches long and mounted to give approximately 3 inches clearance from the side framing of the wall opening. The size, material, and anchoring of the grab handle must be such that it can withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction.
Wall opening screens must be able to withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied horizontally on the near side of the screen. They may be solid, grillwork with openings not more than 8 inches long, or slatwork with openings not more than 4 inches wide with length unrestricted.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) and 656.726(4).
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 through 654.295.
Hist: OR-OSHA Admin. Order 4-1998, f/8/28/98, ef. 10/1/98.