A review On Protecting National Health Through Rasayana And Vajikarana Chikithsa




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A Review On Protecting National Health Through

Rasayana And Vajikarana Chikithsa

(Rejuvenation And Aphrodisiac Therapies)
E.R.H.S.S. EDIRIWEERA

Professor

Department of Nidana Chikithsa (Diagnosis and Treatment),

Institute of Indigenous Medicine,

University of Colombo,

Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka.




Corresponding Author: Professor E.R.H.S.S. Ediriweera
Department of Nidana Chikithsa (Diagnosis and Treatment),

Institute of Indigenous Medicine,

University of Colombo,

Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka


E-mail : sujatha.erhss@gmail.com
Short running head: Ediriweera, Rasayana and Vajikarana Chikithsa.

A review on protecting National Health through

Rasayana and Vajikarana Chikithsa

(Rejuvenation and Aphrodisiac Therapies)
ABSTRACT
"Health is Wealth". Rasayana (Rejuvenation therapy) promote longevity by retarding ageing process and preventing diseases. Ayurveda describes different classifications of Rasayana. According to the methods of prescribing, Rasayana is of two types namely; Kutipravesika (Indoor treatment, meaning taking treatment while staying in a special room), and Vatatapika (Outdoor treatment, meaning taking treatment while being in a normal environment, attending day to day duties). As per scope of use, Rasayana is of two types. That is, Naimitthika Rasayana which promotes vitality in specific diseases and Kamya Rasayana which promotes health. Kamya Rasayana is of three types; namely; Pranakamya (Promoter of vitality and longevity of life), Medhakamya (Promoter of intelligence) and Shrikamya (Promoter of complexion). Further Ayurveda describes three types of Rasayana. They are; Ajasrika Rasayana (rejuvenation through food), Aushadha Rasayana (rejuvenation through drugs) and Achara Rasayana (rejuvenation through behavior and controlling mental urges such as anger, jealousy so on). Droni Praveshika is an another special type of Rasyana procedure described in Ayurveda. A person may attain longevity, freedom from diseases, excellence of complexion and voice, enhanced memory power and intellect and preservation of youth, through rejuvenation therapy.

Vajikarana (Aphrodisiac therapy) deals with the promotion of sexual health, healthy progeny, treatment of male sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation) and infertility. Vajikarana therapy improves the nourishment and function of the reproductive organs and vitalizes tissues of reproductive organs, increasing semen count and strengthening their motility and making sperms more viable for conception. Vajikarana helps to increase fertility of both sexes, thereby leading to the propagation of healthy future generations. Authentic texts state that Vajikarana makes a man capable of sexual intercourse with women with vigor of stallion and for a long duration. Rasayana (Rejuvenation therapy) and Vajikarana (Aphrodisiac therapy) play an important role in promoting and protecting the health of the human race.
Keywords: Rasayana, Vajikarana Chikithsa, Rejuvenation, Aphrodisiacs, National health
INTRODUCTION
Ayurveda means “Science of life”. According to Ayurveda health is a dynamic equilibrium of Doshas, Agni, Dhathus and Malas and is a state where the Athma (soul), Indriya (senses) and Manas (mind) are pleasant and joyful. According to World Health Organization (WHO) health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Ayurveda has eight branches; Rasayana and Vajikarana are two of them. Further Ayuveda describes two therapeutic measures i.e. Apatharpana and Samtharpana. Apatharpana (Langhana) is depleting therapy to handle the excess and Samtharpana (Vrumhana) is nourishing therapy to manage the shortage. Samtharpana Chikithsa (Nourishing treatment) is administered in two ways that is Rasayana Chikithsa (Rejuvenation therapy) and Vajikarana Chikithsa (Aphrodisiac therapy). The aim of the study is to enhance the awareness of public on importance of Rasayana and Vajikarana Chikithsa towards national health.


MATERIAL AND METHODS
Data was gathered from authentic Ayurvedic texts.
RESULTS
01. Rasayana:

Etymology, types of Rasayana Chikithsa, its indications and contraindications, procedure of administration, selection of Rasayana Aushadha, health benefits and the recent research findings on Rasayana are described under this section.


01.1 Etymology of Rasayana1

Rasayana, is a Sanskrit word made of two words “Rasa” and “Ayana”, with literal meaning: Path (Ayana) of essence (Rasa) which refers to nutrition and its transportation in the body.
01.2 Types of Rasayana Chikithsa

01.2.1 Depending on the procedure of Rasayana Chikithsa2, it is divided into two:

a.) Kuti Praveshika Rasayana (Indoor Rasayana Therapy) and

b.) Vathathapika Rasayana (Outdoor Rasayana Therapy).
01.2.2 According to the selection of Rasayana Aushadha3, it can be divided into three:

a.) Kamya Rasayana (Promoter of general health and longevity),

b.) Naimitthika Rasayana (Disease specific Rasayana) and

c.) Ajasrika Rasayana (Rasayana to use daily routine).


01.2.3 Kamya Rasayana4 again can be classified into three:

a.) Pranakamya (Promoter of vitality and longevity of life),

b.) Medhakamya (Promoter of intellect) and

c.) Shrikamya (Promoter of complexion and luster).


01.2.4 On the basis of diet and life stylesa5, Rasayana can be classified again into three:

a.) Aushdha Rasayana (Rasayana through drugs),

b.) Ahara Rasayana (Rasayana through diet) and

c.) Achara Rasayana (Rasayana through good conduct).


01.3 Indications of Rasayana Chikithsa6

This Rasayana Chikithsa has been indicated for young and middle aged persons after prior unction and evacuation and also people, who are healthy, intelligent, having self-control, a good amount of money and sufficient time, can be treated with Rasayana Chikithsa.


01.4 Contraindications of Rasayana Chikithsa7

Rasayana Chikithsa is contraindicated for people, who are afflicted with evil attitudes and intensions.
01.5 Procedure of Rasayana Chikithsa
Rasayana Chikithsa is administered in different ways:
01.5.1 Kuti Praveshika Rasayana (Indoor Rasayana Therapy)

This is conducted making a person to stay in a special chamber and the person is subjected to Shodhana Chikithsa prior to administration of Rasayana Chikithsa.




    • Building the Thrigarbha Kuti8 (The Special Treatment Chamber)

A Thrigarbha Kuti has to be built placing its entrance towards north or east in an acceptable place with easy access to procuring necessary Rasayana drugs and the place should be free from alarm. It should have thick walls and a good space with a high roof and narrow ventilators. It also should be well lighted and livable in any season.


    • Method of Preparation and Performing the Kuti Praveshika Rasayana9

A person should undergo:

a.) Purva Karma, which includes entering a suitable person into the Thrigarbha Kuti, and carrying out Samshodhana Karma (detoxification) along with Samsarjana Krama, as preparatory procedures before subjecting to Rasayana Chikithsa for better results.

The Samshodhana process detoxifies both body and mind. A detoxified body and mind is like a clean cloth which readily absorbs the color in which it has been dipped unlike a soiled cloth which looks soiled even after coloring with best colors.

If a person is not eligible for Samshodhana Karma then he can also undergo with Rasayana Chikithsa (which boost the qualities of Rasa in his body) without Samshodhana.


b.) Pradhana Karma, where a properly detoxified person is administered with Rasayana drugs.
c.) Pashchath Karma, which is the stage proper dietary measures and a correct code of conduct are advised to be followed by the rejuvenated person, before discharging him from the Kuti.
01.5.2 Vathathapika Rasayana10 (Outdoor Rasayana Therapy)

Apart from Kuti Praveshika Rasayana, a person should also be treated with Vathathapika Rasayana, which is more easier, practicable and affordable than Kuti Praveshika Rasayana in the present society.


01.5.3 Droni Praveshika Rasayana11

This is a special type of Rasayana Chikithsa administered in a very spectacular manner, where a person is made to consume stomach full of the juice of Divya Aushadhi (Divine herbs) and made to lie down unconsciously in a wooden casket for a period of six months. Although many textual references can be found regarding this procedure as being one that will enable an old person to completely regain his youth, but this has no known history of being performed anywhere in the near past.


01.6 Selection of Rasayana Aushadha (Rasayana Drugs)

01.6.1 Kamya Rasayana (Promoter of general health and longevity)

Under Kamya Rasayana, a person may be administered following:

a.) Pranakamya Rasayana

This is administered to a person with an aim to promote the vitality and longevity of life. Drugs are used singly or in combination with other medicaments such as Thriphala Rasayana.


b.) Medhakamya Rasayana

Medhakamya Rasayana is administered to a person with an aim to promote intellect, which includes Medhya Rasayana: Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis), Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Madhuyashti (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

Addition to these Ashvagandha (Withania somnifera), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and Jyothishmathi (Celastrus paniculata) have Medhya properties.


c.) Shrikamya Rasayana

Aim of administration of this Shrikamya Rasayana is to promote the complexion and luster of a person. These Rasayana drugs are Divya Aushadhi (Divine herbs).


01.6.2 Naimitthika Rasayana (Disease specific Rasayana)

According to the disease condition, specific Rasayana drug will be selected for the administration.



  • Eye diseases: Thriphala (Three myrobalans), Shathavari (Asparagus racemosus), Yashtimadhu (G. glabra)

  • Heart diseases: Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), Shalaparni (Desmodium gangaticum), Pushkaramula (Inula racemosa), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul)

  • Skin diseases: Bakuchi (Psoralia corylifolia), Gandhaka (Sulphur), Bhallathaka (Semecarpus anacardium), Thuvaraka (Hydnocarpus laurifolia), Vidanga (Embelia ribes)

  • Joint diseases: Shallaki (Boswellia serrata), Amruthabhallathaka, Rasona (Allium sativum)

  • Diabetes: Shilajathu (Black bitumen), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Haridra (Curcuma longa)

  • Anemia: Lauha (Iron)

  • Hypertension: Rasona (A. sativum), Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina), Bala (Sida cordifolia), Rasna (Alpinia galanga), Medhya Rasayana

  • Hypotension: Kupilu (Strychnos nux-vomica), Kasthuri (Musk)

  • Asthma: Haridra (C. longa), Shirisha (Albezia lebbeck), Agastya (Sesbania grandiflora), Rasna (A. galanga)

  • Allergies: Haridra (C. longa)

  • Lipid disorders: Guggulu (C. mukul), Harithaki (Terminalia chebula)

  • Brain and mental disorders: Brahmi (Becopa monnieri), Jyothishmathi (C. paniculata),

Apart from the above list, numerous Rasayana formulations are given in the Ayurvedic texts12-13. Some of them are:



  • Brahmarasayana I and II

  • Chyavanaprashavaleha

  • Amalaka Rasayana

  • Harithakiyoga I and II

  • Amalaka Ghrutha

  • Amalaka Avaleha

  • Vidangavaleha

  • Vidanga Rasayana

  • Varahikanda Rasayana

  • Mandukaparni Rasayana

  • Brahmi Rasayana

  • Vacha Rasayana

  • Shathapaka Vacha Ghrutha

  • Bhallathaka Kshira

  • Bhallathaka Kshaudra

  • Bhallathaka Thaila

  • Thriphala Rasayana

  • Shilajathu Rasayana

  • Lauhadi Rasayana

  • Pippali Vardhamana Rasayana

In the Sri Lankan Traditional Medicine, number of Rasayana formulations can be found14. Some of them are:



  • Desadun Kalkaya

  • Ranahamsa Rasayanaya

  • Puhul Basnaya

  • Ra Basnaya

  • Elu Pikudu Basnaya

  • Thora Basnaya

  • Ha Basnaya

  • Subharathna Ghruthaya


01.6.3 Ajasrika Rasayana (Rasayana to use daily routine)

This can be advised to use daily routine, eg. Kshira (Milk), Ghrutha (Ghee)




    • Achara Rasayana15 (Rasayana through good conduct)

A person may be treated well with Rasayana Chikithsa, still that person has to observe a strict code of conduct, which consists of:

truthfulness, free from anger, devoid of alcohol and sexual indulgence, hurt no one, absence of exertion, self composed, speaking kindly, praying, virtuous, intelligent, donating, practicing austerities, honoring gods, cows, brahmana, teachers, seniors and elders, nonviolent, compassionate, moderate in wake and sleep, partaking ghee and milk, awareness of place, time and measure, courteous, non-egotism, polite, undemanding, spiritual, worshiping elders, believers, self-controlled and learned men.


01.6.4 Selection of Rasayana Aushadha According to Age16

Nowadays experts in the field of Ayurveda recommend to consume different drugs containing Rasayana property according to their age.




Age

Degeneration

Indicated Rasayana Aushadha

01-10

Balya (Childhood)

Svarna (Gold)

11-20

Vruddhi (Growth)

Bala (S. cordifolia)

21-30

Chavi (Complexion)

Amalaki (E. officinalis)

31-40

Medha (Intellect)

Shankhapushpi (C. pluricaulis)

41-50

Tvak (Skin)

Bhrungaraja (Eclipta alba)

51-60

Drushti (Vision)

Thriphala (Three myrobalans)

61-70

Shukra (Semen)

Ashvagandha (W. somnifera)

71-80

Vikrama (Courage)

-

81-90

Buddhi (Understanding)

91-100

Karmendriya (Organ of action)

101-110

Chetha (Mind )

111-120

Jivitha (Life)


01.6.5 Selection of Rasayana Aushadha According to Dhathu17 (Tissue element)

Various Rasayana drugs are indicated according to the involvement of Dhathu in a disease conditions.




Afflicted Dhathu

Indicated Rasayana Aushadha

Rasa (Lymph)

Kshira (Milk), Draksha (Vitis vinifera), Kashmari (Gmelina arborea)

Raktha (Blood)

Lauha (Iron), Nagabala (Sida spinosa), Palandu (Allium cepa)

Mamsa (Muscles)

Bala (S. cordifolia), Nagabala (S. spinosa), Ashvagandha (W. somnifera)

Medha (Fat)

Shilajathu (Black bitumen), Guggulu (C. mukul), Amrutha (T. cordifolia)

Asthi (Bone)

Laksha (Lac), Shukthi (Oyster shell), Shankha (Conch shell)

Majja (Marrow)

Lauha (Iron), Vasa (Marrow of the flesh), Majja (Bone marrow)

Shukra (Semen)

Ashvagandha (W. somnifera), Athmaguptha (Mucuna pruriens), Vajikarana Aushadha (Aphrodisiacs)


01.6.6 Selection of Rasayana Aushadha According to Prakruthi18 (Body constitution)

Various Rasayana drugs are indicated according to the Prakruthi of the person.




Prakruthi

Indicated Rasayana Aushadha

Vathaja

Bala (S. cordifolia), Nagabala (S. spinosa), Ghrutha (Ghee)

Pitthaja

Shathavari (A. racemosus), Amalaki (E. officinalis), Ghrutha (Ghee)

Shleshmaja

Guggulu (C. mukul), Bhallathaka (S. anacardium), Pippali (Piper longum)


01.6.7 Selection of Rasayana Aushadha According to their Agni Vardhaka (Strengthening digestive fire), Srothas Shodhana (Cleansing channels) and Rasa Dhathu Vardhaka (Increasing lymph) Properties19


Therapeutic requirement

Indicated Rasayana Aushadha

Agni Vardhaka (Strengthening digestive fire)

Pippali (P. longum), Chithraka (Plumbago zeylanica), Vidanga (E. ribes)

Srothas Shodhana (Cleansing channels)

Pippali (P. longum), Guggulu (C. mukul), Bhallathaka (S. anacardium), Kasthuri (Musk)

Rasa Dhathu Vardhaka (Increasing lymph)

Kshira (Milk), Draksha (V. vinifera), Kashmari (G. arborea)


01.6.8 Selection of Rasayana Aushadha According to Sathmya20 (Homologation)


Sathmya

Indicated Rasayana Aushadha

Ruthu (Season)

Adana (Exhausting)

Amalaki (E. officinalis)

Visarga (Replenishing)

Bhallathaka (S. anacardium)

Desha (Place)

Sadharana (General)

Amrutha (T. cordifolia)

Jangala (Arid)

Ashvagandha (W. somnifera)

Anupa (Wet)

Pippali (P. longum)


01.7 Health Benefits of Rasayana Chikithsa21

A person may attain longevity, freedom from diseases, excellence of complexion and voice, enhanced memory power and intellect and preservation of youth, through rejuvenation therapy.


01.8 Recent Research Findings Validating the Claims of Rasayana Aushadha
a.) Harithaki (T. chebula)

The results of one experiment showed that all tested extracts and pure compounds of T. chebula exhibited antioxidant activity at different magnitudes of potency and it was derived from different pathways suggesting specificity of activity22.

All the results of another experiment, helped to conclude that the aqueous extract of T. chebula acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radio protector23.

Some other experiment showed that low concentrations of T. chebula fruit extract is able to initiate cellular pathways resulting apoptosis, whereas the high concentrations of the extract has direct toxic effects leading to rapid necrotic cell death. Phenolics such as chebulinic and ellagic acids of the extract showed moderate inhibition and may be responsible for the inhibiting cell proliferation24.


b.) Amrutha (T. cordifolia),

Shathavari (A. racemosus) and

Amalaki (E. officinalis)

Experiments performed on representative plants from the Rasayana group described in Ayurveda revealed that T. cordifolia, A. racemosus and E. officinalis exerted significant anti-stress effects against a battery of stresses with varied mechanisms of actions, such as immunostimulant effects or prostaglandin release or anti-oxidative action, etc25.


c.) Ashvagandha (W. somnifera)

Researchers found that W. somnifera possesses many qualities, including immunomodulatory, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as exerting an influence on the endocrine, nervous, and cardiopulmonary systems through various experimental studies on W. somnifera26.


d.) Pippali (P. longum)

It also showed that administration of P. longum extract and piperine could act as non-toxic immunomodulators due to the combined action of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and also possess significant antitumor property due to the inhibition of the growth of solid tumor27.


e.) Bhallathaka (S. anacardium)

One experimental study has indicated that S. anacardium nut extract exhibits a potential protective immunomodulary effect by humoral as well as cell mediated immune mechanisms along with analgesic effect and also exerted strong anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. These activities are probably attributed to the presence of flavonoids in the drug28.


f.) Yashtimadhu (G. glabra)

One scientific investigation revealed that, G. glabra is a promise as a memory enhancing agent in mice in all the laboratory models employed, due to a combination of neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects29.


g.) Brahmi (Bacopa monneri)

The results of a clinical study showed a significant effect of the B. monneri on a test for the retention of new information and follow-up tests also showed that B. monneri decreases the rate of forgetting of newly acquired information30.


02. Vajikarana:

Vajikarana is a branch of Ayurveda31 that explains the art of producing healthy progeny for the creation of a better society.

Under Vajikarana, its Etymology, its indications, procedure of administration, selection of Vajikarana Aushadha, health benefits and the recent research findings on Vajikarana are described under this section.


02.1 Etymology of Vajikarana
The word Vaji means “horse”. Vajikarana is the combined group of therapeutic modalities which enhance sexual power of a man as a horse is known as Vajikarana Chikithsa32.
02.2 Indication of Vajikarana Chikithsa33

Vajikarana Chikithsa is beneficial for old people who are desirous of sexual intercourse, who are hankering after love of women, who are emaciated due to excessive intercourse, who are impotent and have poor semen. It is also beneficial for rich people who have numerous wives.
02.3 Procedure of Vajikarana Chikithsa34

A person, who wishes to get treated with Vajikarana Chikithsa, should first get subjected to Shodhana Chikithsa in order to cleanse the body before administration of Vajikarana Chikithsa to get maximum benefits. If a person is not suitable for Shamshodhana Karma, then he can consume Vajikarana Aushadha.


A person should undergo:

a.) Purva Karma, which includes carrying out Samshodhana Karma (detoxification) along with Samsarjana Krama, as preparatory procedures before subjecting to Vajikarana Chikithsa for better results.


b.) Pradhana Karma, where a properly detoxified person is administered with Vajikarana drugs.
c.) Pashchath Karma, during this period, a proper dietary measures is advised to be followed by the person, who has consumed Vajikarana drugs.
02.4 Selection of Vajikarana Aushadha (Vajikarana Drugs)

Similar to the selection of Rasayana drugs, selection of Vajikarana drugs also depend on various disease conditions.



  • The best aphrodisiac: The loving and aroused woman35

  • Oligozoospermia: Shukrajanana36 (Spermatogenetics) drugs such as Ashvagandha (W. somnifera), Musali (Curculigo orchioides), Shathavari (A. racemosus)

  • Disordered ejaculation: Shukrapravarthaka37 (Promoters of ejaculation) drugs such as Vruhathi phala (Solanum indicum)

  • Premature ejaculation: Shukrasthambhaka (Prolongation of ejaculation) drugs containing Jathiphala (Myristica fragrans)

  • Pus cells in semen: Shukrashodhana38 (Spermato-purificators) drugs, which include Ela (Elettaria cardamomum), Ikshu (Saccharum officinarum)

Apart from the above list, numerous Vajikarana formulations are given in the Ayurvedic texts39. Some of them are:



  • Vajikarana Ghrutha

  • Vajikarana Pinda Rasa

  • Vrushya Kshira

  • Vrushya Ghrutha

  • Vrushya Gutika

  • Vrushya Uthkarika

  • Vrushya Masha Yoga

  • Vrushya Pippali Yoga

  • Vrushya Pupalika I and II

  • Vrushya Mahisha Rasa I and II

  • Vrushya Shathavari Ghrutha

  • Makaradhvaja

  • Apatyakara Ghrutha

  • Kameshvara Modaka

Following are the Vajikarana formulations found in the Sri Lankan Traditional Medicine:



  • Rati Kalyana Rasayanaya

  • Vajikarana Modakaya

  • Shathavari Modakaya

  • Kadalyadiya

  • Ranahamsa Rasayanaya40


02.5 Health Benefits of Vajikarana Chikithsa41

Fathering a child will ensure Dharma (Morality), Artha (Wealth), Prithi (Pleasure) and Yasha (Fame), as they all depend upon children endowed with good qualities.

With properly administered Vajikarana measures, a person is capable of:

a.) producing a sufficient amount of semen,

b.) having sexual intercourse with any woman without fear of failure,

c.) both giving and receiving an optimal climax to himself and his partner and

d.) begetting a child to continue his lineage.
02.6 Recent Research Findings Validating the Claims of Vajikarana Aushadha
a.) Ashvagandha (W. somnifera)

The treatment with W. somnifera effectively reduced oxidative stress, as assessed by decreased levels of various oxidants and improved level of diverse antioxidants. Moreover, the levels of T, LH, FSH and PRL, good indicators of semen quality, were also reversed in infertile subjects after treatment with the herbal preparation42.


b.) Musali (C. orchioides)

Testes of experimental and controlled animals when studied under microscope, noteworthy enhanced in spermatogenic activities were observed in experimental animals due to the effect of extract of C. orchioides. The conclusion derived in present investigation; provide that C. orchioides has spermatogenic activities enhancing properties43.

Male rats treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals. The increased spermatogenesis in treated group was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatocyte and spermatids. These findings support the folk use of this plant as aphrodisiac44.

The results thus suggest that the C. orchioides rhizomes ethanolic extract seems to be effective in treatment of erectile dysfunction and in enhancement of overall sexual performance in rats. The results therefore corroborate the hype of plant as herbal cure for sexual dysfunction. The findings also seem to support the traditional use of the plant as aphrodisiac45.


c.) Thila (Sesamum indicum)

Seeds increase lactation in females and also used as aphrodisiac46.


d.) Athibala (Abutilon indicum)

Seeds used in piles and gonorrhea. Roots are also used as aphrodisiac47.


e.) Athmaguptha (M. pruriens)

The potency test significantly increased erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. Therefore, the results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of M. pruriens seed produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats at a particular dose (200 mg/kg). Therefore, the resulting aphrodisiac activity of the extract lends support to the claim that it has traditionally been used for the treatment of sexual disorders48.


f.) Jathiphala (M. fragrans)

Lavanga (Syzygium aromaticum)

The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behavior of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behavior of male mice.

The resultant significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats without any conspicuous adverse effects indicates that the 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg possesses aphrodisiac activity, increasing both libido and potency, which might be attributed to its nervous stimulating property. The present study thus provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of nutmeg in the management of male sexual disorders49.

Effect of hexane extract of flower buds of S. aromaticum at 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, p.o. for 35 days were evaluated for a single spermatogenic cycle in Parkes (P) strain mice. Lower dose (15 mg/kg, p.o.) of the extract increased the activities of Delta 5 3 beta -HSD and 17 beta -HSD, and serum level of testosterone50.


g.) Rasona (A. sativum)51

Aphrodisiac effect of A. sativum extracts at 0.57, 1.13 and 2.25 mL/kg, p.o. for 28 days on male mice was investigated and it was found that it increased sexual behavior in dose dependent manner.


h.) Akarakarabha (Anacyclus pyrethrum)52

Effect of petroleum ether extract of A. pyrethrum at dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, p.o. in male rats showed more receptive and oriented towards female rats and increased precopulatory activities like licking and sniffing of female anogenitals. The penile erection index was significantly increased with reduction in ML and IL period.


i.) Shathavari (A. racemosus)53

Aqueous root extract of A. racemosus treatment had showed enhancement of body weight and reproductive organs, penile erection, mount frequency in rats, and indicates an improvement in sexual behavior.


j.) Chaya (Camellia sinensis)54

C. sinensis tea at 84, 167 and 501 mg/ mL, p.o. dose level in rats were found to possess marked aphrodisiac activity in terms of prolongation of latency of ejaculation shortening of ML, IL and elevation of serum testosterone level.
k.) Kumkuma (Crocus sativus)55

Effect of aqueous extract of C. sativus stigma (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg, i.p.), crocin (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.), safranal (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg, i.p.), on male rats were investigated. Crocin and extract increased MF, IF and erection frequency behaviors and reduced ML, IL and EL, whereas safranal did not show any aphrodisiac effects


l.) Durio zibethinus56

Aphrodisiac activity of petroleum ether extract and isolated compound 3- beta -hydroxy-21-normethyl-19- vinylidenylursane of D. zibenthinus were screened for different dose level and it was found that 400 mg/kg, p.o. was most active in the mice and have better aphrodisiac activity than all other treated dose


m.) Shati (Kaempferia parviflora)57

The alcoholic, hexane and aqueous extracts of K. parviflora showed no effect on the weights of reproductive organ, fertility or sperm motility even in 5-week male rats. However, alcohol extract at a dose of 70 mg/kg, p.o. significantly decreases mount and ejaculatory latencies and increases blood flow to the testis. Whereas, hexane and water extracts had no influence on any sexual behavior parameters.


n.) Litsea chinensis58

Ethanolic extract of the bark of L. chinensis on male sexual behavior in rats at 500 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase in penile erection index, homosexual mounting and facilitated sexual behavior and orientational activity, as shown by increased mounting performance, anogenital sniffing, intromission and ejaculation frequencies.


o.) Vanya Thulasi (Ocimum gratissimum)59

Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of O. gratissimum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. for seven days on mice significantly increases the MF, IF, IL, erections as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the ML and PEI. A dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum effect without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects.


p.) Vruhath Gokshura (Pedalium murex)60

Aphrodisiac activity of petroleum ether extract of P. murex plant at 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. in ethanol induced germ cell damage and infertility in male rat models depicted an increase in mating and mounting behavior, body weight, percentage of pregnancy, litter size, sperm motility and also showed an increased levels of testosterone, germinal cells and the luminal spermatozoa in treated compared to control group.


q.) Passiflora incarnata61

Effect of methanolic extract of P. incarnata on male mice exhibited significant aphrodisiac behavior at 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg, p.o. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg, p.o. dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts.


r.) Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris)62

Effect of T. terrestris at 5 mg/kg, p.o. for 8 weeks in adult Sprague-Dawley rats on sexual behavior and intracavernous pressures (ICP) showed increase in mount and intromission frequencies, decrease in mount, intromission, ejaculation latencies and PEI revealing the improvement of the sexual behavior parameters.

Effect investigation of T. terrestris extract at 20 and 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks on androgen metabolism in young males showed no significant difference between T. terrestris supplemented groups and control in the serum testosterone, androstenedione or luteinizing hormone.

Aphrodisiac properties of the furostanol glycoside fraction of T. terrestris in male castrated rats were investigated at 5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o. for 14 days and found to increase orientational activity parameters such as licking, anogenital and genital grooming and decreased climbing and nongential grooming by male rats indicating increased sexual stimulation.



Effect of T. terrestris at dose of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o. for 8 weeks on sexual behavior and ICP measurements in Sprague-Dawley rats reveals an increase in body weight and ICP, mount and intromission frequencies and decrease in mount latencies compared to the control group.
DISCUSSION
Rasayana drugs act inside the human body by modulating the neuro-endocrino-immune system to keep away from disease. Rasayana therapy enhance the qualities of rasa, enriches it with nutrients so one can attains longevity, memory, intelligence, freedom from disorder, youthfulness, excellence of luster, complexion and voice, optimum development of physique and sense organs, mastery over phonetics and brilliance.

Vajikarana therapy increases sexual energy and strength like a horse. This is a method of strengthening Shukra Dhathu, or the reproductive tissues of the body and gives a state of health and relaxed being to the person. Impotency may occur due to several reasons, some common causes are psychological factors such as stress, depression, and performance anxiety, injuries and diseases that affect blood flow to the penis and nerves supply. Impotency can be treated with the help of Vajikarana Chikithsa.
CONCLUSION
Rasayana Chikithsa helps to prevent from diseases, delay ageing, enhance life span and improve health. This leads to healthy nation. Vajikarana Chikithsa enhances the production of healthy sperm which leads to produce mentally and physically healthy children as the corner stones of a healthy future society. It could be concluded that Rasayana and Vajikarana Chikithsa play a major role in protecting national health.
References

1 Sushrutha, Sushrutha Samhitha, Ed. Acharya JT, Kavyatirtha NRA, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2002, pp. 498-499.
2 Agnivesha, Charaka Samhitha, Trans. Sharma RK, Dash B, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 1998, Vol. III, p. 10.
3 Ibid. 1
4 Ibid. 1
5 Singh RH, Ayurvediya Nidana Cikitsa Ke Siddhanta (Principles of Ayurvedic Diagnosis and Treatment), Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prakashan, Varanasi, Vol. I, 1991, pp. 147-166.
6 Ibid. 1, p. 499
7 Ibid. 2, pp. 64-65.
8Ibid. 2, pp. 10-11.
9 Ibid. 8.
10 Ibid. 2, p. 63.
11 Ibid. 2, pp. 38-39.
12 Ibid. 2, pp. 1-70.
13 Ibid. 1, pp. 498-502.
14 Anonymous, Ayurveda Aushadha Sangrahaya (Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia), Department of Ayurveda, Colombo, Vol. I, Part I, p. 122, p. 205, pp. 261-262.
15 Ibid. 2, pp. 63-64.
16 Sharangadharacharya, Sharangadhara Samhita, Ed. Vidyasagara PS, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2002, p. 76.
17 Ibid. 5.
18 Ibid. 5.
19 Ibid. 5.
20 Ibid. 5.
21 Ibid. 2, p. 8.
22 Cheng HY, et al., Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Terminalia chebula, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2003;26(9), pp. 1331—1335.
23 Naik GH, et al., Studies on the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector, Phytomedicine 2004;11, pp. 530–538.
24 Saleem A, et al., Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula retz. Fruit, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2002; 81, pp. 327-336.
25 Rege NN, et al., Adaptogenic Properties of Six Rasayana Herbs Used in Ayurvedic Medicine, Phytother. Res. 1999; 13, pp. 275–291.
26 Mishra LC, et al., Scientific Basis for the Therapeutic Use of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): A Review, Altern Med Rev 2000;5(4) pp. 334-346.
27 Sunila ES, Kuttan G, Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Piper longum Linn. and piperine, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2004;90 pp. 339–346.
28 Ramprasath, et al., Immunomodulatory and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. Nut Milk Extract in Experimental Inflammatory Conditions, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006;29 (4) pp. 693—700.
29 Dhingra, et al., Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2004;91 pp. 361–365.
30 Roodenrys, et al., Chronic Effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on Human Memory, Neuro Psycho Pharmacology 2002;27 (2), pp. 279-281.
31 Ibid. 1.
32 Ibid. 1, p. 497.
33 Ibid. 1, p. 405.
34 Ibid. 2, pp. 95-96.
35 Ibid. 2, p. 72.
36 Ibid. 1, p. 497.
37 Ibid. 36.
38 Ibid. 2, p. 33.
39 Ibid. 2, pp. 71-106.
40 Ibid. 14, p. 205.
41 Ibid. 2, pp. 71-72.
42 Ahmad, et al., Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males, Fertility and Sterility 2010; 94(3), pp. 989-996.
43 Tayade DV, Evaluation Of Enhanced Spermatogenic Activities Of Black Musli, Curculigo Orchioides In The Indian Sparrow, Passer domesticus, Bioscience Discovery, 2012;3(1), pp. 58-60.
44 Chauhan NS, Dixit VK, Spermatogenic activity of rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn in male rats, International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 2008; 1(2) pp. 26-31.
45 Chauhan NS, et al., Effect of Curculigo orchioides rhizomes on sexual behavior of male rats, Fitoterapia 2007;78 pp. 530–534.
46 Singh PK, et al., Medico-Ethnobotany of ‘Chatara’ Block of District Sonebhadra, Uttar Pradesh, India, Advances in Biological Research 2010;4 (1) pp. 65-80.

Ibid 46.
47 Suresh, et al., Dose- and time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn.

seed on sexual behaviour of normal male rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009;122 pp. 497–501.
48 Tajuddin, et al., Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2003;3:6.
49 Tajuddin, et al., An experimental study of sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg), BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005, 5:16.
50 Patel DK, et al., Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current

scientific literature, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2011 pp. S131-S138.


51 Ibid. 51.
52 Ibid. 51.
53 Ibid. 51.
54 Ibid. 51.
55 Ibid. 51.
56 Ibid. 51.
57 Ibid. 51.
58 Ibid. 51.
59 Ibid. 51.
60 Ibid. 51.
61 Ibid. 51.
62 Ibid. 51.

Ediriweera, Rasayana and Vajikarana Chikithsa.


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