A. M. Cabbarov Rəyçilər: f e. d., professor M. Y. Qazıyeva




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Часть I

Слова к части I


cardiovascular [ka:dıou'væskju:lə] a ürək-damar; сердечно- сосудистый

circulate [sə:kju:leıt] v dövr etmək; циркулировать

circulation [sə:kju:leıt] n qan dövranı; кровообращение

circulatory [sə:kju:leıtərı] a dövr edən;циркуляторный

artery [a:tərı] n arteriya; артерия

vein [veın] n vena; вена

capillary [kə'pılərı] n kapilyar; капилляр

thorax ['θ:ræks] n döş qəfəsi, köks; грудная клетка

thoracic [θə'ræsık] a döş, sinə; грудной

atrium ['eıtrıəm] n ürək qulaqcığı; предсердие

auricle [:rıkl] n ürək qu­laqcığı; предсердие

ventricle ['ventrıkl] n mədəcik (ürəkdə,beyində); желудочек

valve[vælv] n klapan, qapaq; клапан

pump [pΛmp] v nasoslamaq; накачивать

aorta ['eı:tə] n aorta; аорта

dissolve [dı'zlv] v əritmək, həll etmək; растворяться

nourish ['nΛrı∫] v qidalandırmaq; питаться

nourishment ['nΛrı∫mənt] n qida, yeyəcək; питание

impurity [ım'pju:ərıtı] n qatışıq; примесь

fluid ['fluıd] n maye; жидкост

minute [maı'nju:t] a kiçik, az; маленький, мелчайший



Çalışmalar

Упражнения
Çalışma 1. Hər bir sırada Perfect zaman formasında olan feli tapın.

Упражнение 1. Найдите в каждом ряду глагол во временах группы Perfect.

1.called; has called; is calling; 2. had thought; think; is thought; 3. shall have come; came; comes; 4. have given; gave; will give; 5. distinguish; has distin­gu­is-hed; distinguishes

Çalışma 2. Aşağıdakı cümlələrdə feli xəbərin zaman və formasını təyin edin.

Упражнение 2. Определите время и форму гла­го­ла-сказуемого в следующих предложениях.

1.We have just learned the general structure of the bo­dy. 2. The bones of the skull protect the brain structure from injury. 3. All the bones of the body are of different types. 4. Muscles are constantly assist­ing in the body movement. 5. The doctor had already examined the girl’s heart when the professor came in. 6. We shall have got the books in anatomy by tomorrow morning.
Çalışma 3. Aşağıdakı cümlələri oxuyun və tərcümə edin; because, because of sözlərinin funksiyasını təyin edin.

Упражнение 3 Прочтите и переведите сле­ду­ю­щие предложения; опреде­лите, какую функцию вы­по­л­­няют слова because и because of.

1. Penicillin is an important antibiotic because of its antiseptic prop­erties. 2. Many infectious diseases are dan­ge­rous because it is difficult to treat them. 3. The false ribs received this name because they join the seventh rib at the point before they reach the sternum. 4. Acetabulum got its na­me because of its resemblance to a rounded cup which the Romans used for acetum.
Çalışma 4. Aşağıdakı sözləri oxuyun və tərcümə ed­in.

Упражнение 4. Прочтите следующие слова и пер­еведите их.

atrium ['eıtrıəm], serum ['sıərəm], to contain [kən'teın], tricuspid [traı'kΛspıd], valve[vælv], oxygen ['ksıd3(ə)n], diaphragm ['daıəfræm], blood [bUd]

Çalışma 5. Aşağıdakı cümlələrin oxunuşunu öy­rə­nin.

Упражнение 5. Отработайте чтение следующих пред­ложений.

1. By the [ə cardio’vascular /system | we 'mean the /heart, | the |ı] /arteries, | the [a] /veins | and the [ə] ca’pillaries of the [ə] human \ body. |

2. From the 'left /heart | the 'well-oxyge’nated /blo­od | is 'pumped into a 'large /artery |'called the [i] a\orta. |

3. The /artery | that re’ceives the 'blood from the 'rig­ht /ventricle | and 'carries it to the /lungs | is the 'pul­mo­nary \artery. |
Çalışma 6. Aşağıdakı söz formalarını oxuyun və tər­cü­mə edin.

Упражнение 6. Прочтите и переведите сле­ду­ю-щие гнезда слов.

1. pure, impure, purity, impurity; 2. to weigh, wei­ght, weightless, weighty; 3. to circulate, circulatory, cir­culation; 4. artery, arterial, ar- teri-ole, arteriosclerosis; 5. to separate, separately, separation; 6. to nour­ish, no­ur­is­h­ment.

Çalışma 7. Aşağıdakı söz birləşmələrini oxuyun və tər­cümə edin.

Упражнение 7. Прочтите и переведите сле­ду­ю­щие словосочетания.

molecular weight, to put on (to gain) weight, to lose wei­g­ht, systemic circulation, circulating system, poor cir­cu­lation, venous pulse blood, thoracic cavity
Çalışma 8. A mətnini nəzərdən keçirin. Onu 4 his­sə­yə bölün və hər birinin əsas fikrini ifadə edin.

Упражнение 8. Просмотрите текст А. Разделите тек­ст на 4 части и выразите основную мысль каждой из них.

Text А

The Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System
The cardiovascular system is the system of blood circulation. By the cardiovascular system we mean the heart, the arteries, the veins and the capillaries of the human body.

The centre of the circulatory system is the heart. The human heart is a cone-shaped organ, about 5 inches' long and 3 1/2 inches broad. It weighs about 10 ounces in the adult male, 6 ounces in the female. It lies in the thoracic cavity, just behind the breastbone and between the lungs. The heart is a hollow muscle which has four chambers. The right heart consists of an upper chamber, the atrium or the auricle and a lower chamber, the ventricle. Between these two chambers is a one-way valve, the tricuspid valve. The left heart has two chambers, but the valve that separates its chambers we call the mitral valve. Although the heart is a unit, anatomically and functionally, we may think of it as of two pumps — the «right heart» and the «left heart». The right heart receives blood from the veins and pumps it into the lungs by way of the lesser circulatory system. In the lungs the blood receives oxygen. Then it moves into the left heart. From the left heart the well-oxygenated blood moves into a large artery, the aorta. The blood returns to the heart by means of the veins. The walls of the capillaries are so thin that the dissolved nourishment that has come from the digestive system and the oxygen that has come from the lungs can pass through them into the tissues of the body and so nourish it. The capillaries form a close network all over the body. They gradually join together and get larger, and become veins.


Aorta


Superior vena cava


Right atrium



Pulmonary valve


Mitral valve


Aortic valve

Left ventricle

Interventricular septum
Right ventricle



Fig. 3. Diagram of the heart.


Tricuspid valve


Interior vena cava






Left

pulmonary artery

Pulmonary artery
Left atrium

Blood vessels that receive blood from the ventricle and lead it away from the heart and towards other organs are arteries («air duct» - Greek). The vessels received this name because the early anatomists assumed that they had been empty in dead persons and had carried air.The artery that takes up the blood from the right ventricle and carries it to the lungs is the pulmonary artery («lungs» – Latin). The pulmonary artery divides in two — one branch leads to the right lung, the other – to the left. The arteries continue to divide and subdivide and form smaller and smaller vessels with thinner and thinner walls. The smallest arteries are the arterioles and these finally divide into capillaries («hairlike» – Lat­in). We name them so because of their fineness, though actually they are much finer than hairs.

Gradually the capillaries begin to join into larger vessels. Such larger blood vessels that carry blood to the heart from the organs are the veins. The smallest of these are the venules.

The particular vein into which the capillaries and venules of the lungs finally unite is the pulmonary vein. The pulmonary vein carries the freshly oxygenated blood to the left auricle. The pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein make up the pulmonary circulation.

The contraction of the left ventricle forces the 'blood through a one-way valve into the aorta («to lift up» – Greek). The aorta is the largest artery in the body. It moves upward at first (the ascending aorta), but then arches over dorsally (the arch of the aorta). In its downward course, the aorta passes through the diaphragm. ‘

The blood is a red fluid, which coagulates when escapes from a blood vessel. It consists of a colourles fluid, plasma or serum, and many millions of minute bodies, the corpuscles.
Notes


  1. inch (сокр. in.) = 2,54 cm (centimetres)

  2. ounce (сокр. oz.) = 28,33 gram (grammes)

Çalışma 9. Verilmiş latın sözlərinin ingilis dilində ekvivalentlərini seçin.

Упражнение 9. Подберите к латинским словам английские эквиваленты.


male



female

thorax

dorsal

spinal

chest

man

woman



Çalışma 10. Sinonim cütlüklərini seçin.

Упzражнение 10. Подберите пары синонимов.

substance, to supply, to nourish, because of, because, minute, tiny, to provide, to obtain, due to, fine, as, matter, to feed.
Çalışma 11. Antonim cütlüklərini seçin.

Упражнение 11. Подберите пары антонимов.

larger, upward, ascending, colourless, thick, colourful, thin, descend­ing, downward, smaller.
Çalışma 12. Aşağıdakı cümlələri tərcümə edin. Seçilmiş sözlərin hansı nitq hissəsinə aid olduğunu təyin edin.

Упражнение 12. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния. Определите, какими частями речи являются вы­деленные слова.

1. The number and even nature of the clots in the veins and arteries differ according to their size. 2. Under the microscope we can see the membrane which consists of a number of separate cells. 3. Blood includes minute bodies, which give the blood its colour. 4. The heart makes 70-80 contrac­tions a minute.
Çalışma 13. Aşağıdakı cümlələri tərcümə edin. Feli xə­bər­lərin zaman formasını təyin edin.

Упражнение 13. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния. Определите времен­ную форму глагола-ска­зу­е­мо­го.

1. The heart is beating in the experimental animals even when we destroy the nerve supply. 2. The vena cava brings deoxygenated blood which has passed through the body to the right atrium. 3. During diastole, the atrium of the heart is filling with blood from the venae cavae and the pulmonary vein. 4. We were discussing the anatomy of the heart at the English lesson yester­day. 5. We shall still be working at this problem for another week. 6. The teacher corrected the tests which the students had written the day before.
Çalışma 14. Verilmiş cümlələrdəki sifətləri mü­qa­yi­sə və üstünlük dərəcələrində işlədin.

Упражнение 14. Поставьте прилагательные в сле­д­ующих предложениях в сравнительную или пре­вос­ходную степень.

1. The veins are (large) than capillaries. 2. The aorta is the (large) artery which distributes the blood throughout the body. 3. I know thestructure of the heart (good) than that of the lungs. 4. Anatomy is (diffi­cult) subject for me. 5. The human heart weighs (little) than a pound.
Çalışma 15. Hər bir sütunda müqayisə dərəcəli si­fət­ləri tapın.

Упражнение 15. Найдите в каждой колонке при­ла­гательное в сравнительной степени.

a) shoulder b) other с) thinner

longer liver father

closer smaller thicker

larger summer greater
Çalışma 16. Mötərizədəki sözlərdən mənası uyğun ola­nını seçərək aşağıdakı cümlələri tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 16. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния, выбрав подходящее но смыслу слово в скоб­ках.

1. The capillaries got their names (because, because of) they resem­ble hairs. 2. The blood reaches the arteries (be­cause, because of) the contraction of the heart. 3. The two blood streams do not readily mix in the ventricle (because, because of) the muscular meshwork within its cavity. 4. (Because, because of) arteries carry blood away from the heart, they must be strong enough to withstand the high pressure of the pumping action of the heart. 5. If we stimulate the nerve in the ear by electricity, the ear becomes blanched (because, because of) the arteries contract.
Çalışma 17. 3-cü şəkildən istifadə edərək ürək–da­mar sistemini təsvir edin.

Упражнение 17. Опишите сердечно-сосудистую сис­тему, используя рис. 3.


II hissə

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