A. M. Cabbarov Rəyçilər: f e. d., professor M. Y. Qazıyeva




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Часть III
I dərsə aid ümumiləşdirici yoxlama çalışmaları

Контрольно - обобщающие упражнения к уроку 1
Çalışma 1. Tərcümə zamanı a) yer zərfliyi ilə b) xə­bər­lə başlayan cümlələri göstərin. Onları tərcümə edin

Упражнение 1. Укажите предложения, которые сле­дует переводить, начи­ная: а) с обстоятельства мес­­с­­та; б) со сказуемого. Переведите их.
1.There is a long white cord in the spinal canal. 2. There are two pairs of limbs in the human skeleton. 3. There are three groups of vertebrae according to their po­si­tion. 4. There are differences in the structure of ver­teb­rae. 5. There exist two, vertebral segments: anteriour and po­­s­­terior.

Çalışma 2. Aşağıdakı fel formalarından məsdər for­ma­sı yaradın.

Упражнение 2. Образуйте форму инфинитива от сле­дующих глагольных форм.

Possessing, seperated, made up, is, built, allows, tur­ning, bent, con­taining, will bind


LESSON TWO



THE MUSCLES

  1. Tense groups of Continuous (Active Voice)

  2. Modal verbs: саn, must, may)

  3. Functions and translation of that (those) (§ 34)


I hissə

Часть I

I hissəyə aid sözlər

Слова к части I
skin [skın] п dəri (кожа)

lay [leı] (laid) v qoymaq (класть)

layer ['leıə] n qat (слой)

average ['ævərıd3] а orta (средний)

male [meıl] а kişi cinsi (мужского пола, мужс­кой)

female ['fi:meıl] а qadın cinsi (женского пола, женский)

cell [sel] n hüceyrə (клетка)

striated [straı'eıtıd] а köndələn, zolaqlı (по­пе­ре­ч­но-по- лосатый, полосатый)

contract [kən'trækt] v qısaltmaq, ixtisar etmək (сокращать (ся))

blood [blΛd] n qan (кровь)

vessel [vesl] j n damar (сосуд)

digestive [dı'd3estıv] а həzm (пищеваритель­ный, пи­­щ­евой)

refer [rı'fə:] v nəyə isə aid olmaq, münasibəti ol­maq (относиться к чему-л., иметь отношение)

tissue ['tısju:] n toxuma (ткань); connective tissue bir­ləşdirici toxuma (соединительная ткань)

smooth [smu:θ] а hamar , düz (гладкий, ровный)

viscera ['vısərə] n pl. daxili orqanlar, bağırsaqlar (внут­­ренние органы; кишки)

visceral ['vısərəl] а daxili orqanlara aid olan (от­но ся­щийся к внутренним органам)

cause [k:z] v səbəb olmaq, məcbur etmək (вы­зы­вать, быть при­чиной, заставлять); п səbəb (причина)

will п iradə (воля)

response [rıs 'pns] п cavab, əks – səda (ответ, от­кл­ик­; реакция)

effect [ı'fekt] п nəticə, təsir (результат, следствие; дейс­твие, влияние)

environment [ın'vaıərənmənt] п əhatə, mühit, ətraf mühit (окру­же­ние; среда; окружающая об­становка

that is (lat. i.e.) то есть
Çalışmalar

Упражнения
Çalışma 1. Hər bir sırada Continuous zaman for­ma­sın­da olan feli tapın.

Упражнение 1. Найдите в каждом ряду глагол во вре­менах группы Contin­uous.

1. was placing placed; is placed; 2. bound; bind; is binding 3. were bent; was bending; benty 4. joins; is joi­ni­ng­; were joined; 5. are not included; will be including; inc­lu­des; 6. is distinguishing; are distin­guishing; di­sti­ng­uishes


Çalışma 2. Aşağıdakı cümlələri inkar formada iş­lə­din.

Упражнение 2. Поставьте следующие пред­ло­жен­ия в отрицательную форму.

Nümunə (образец) We are working at the laboratory now.

We are not working at the laboratory now

1. They were discussing the functions of brain for two hours running. 2. We shall be studying the bones of the palm for the whole day. 3. He is taking his exa­mi­na­tion in history now. 4. I was writing my report when she en­tered the library hall.


Çalışma 3. Aşağıdakı cümlələri tərcümə edin, feli xə­bərin zaman formalarını təyin edin

Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния, определите времен­ную форму глагола-ска­зу­ем­ого.

1. Smooth or unstriated muscles contract without any volition. 2. Blood vessels are contracting when they respond to the temperature. 3. The bones of our body make up the skeleton. 4. They were making their ex­pe­ri­ment from 5 to 7. 5. Students will learn the framework of the chest in the first term. 6. We shall be studying the fun­c­ti­ons of the heart during the whole lesson.


Çalışma 4. Aşağıdakı cümlələrdə modal felləri tapın. Cüm­lələri azərbaycan və rus dillərinə tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 4. Найдите модальные глаголы в сле­дующих предложениях. Переведите предложения на aзербайджанский и русский языки.

1. The lesson is over, you may go home. 2. The cha­rac­ter of the joints distinguishes the degree of the motion which we can perform. 3. Smooth muscles can contract slowly. 4. We may divide animals into vertebrates and inver­tebrates. 5. Student Petrov should stay at home as his leg still aches. 6. Future doctors must know human ana­tomy very well.


Çalışma 5. Boş yerləri can, must, may modal felləri ilə doldurun

Упражнение 5. Заполните пропуски модальными гла­­голами can, must, may

1. You … come for consultations on physics any ti­me from 5 to 8. 2.We … know all the functions of the lungs. 3. … I ask a question? 4. She … come as she is ill. 5. Who … describe the tones of the trunk? 6. The joints … move by the contraction of muscles.
Çalışma 6. Aşağıdakı cümlələri tərcümə edin. That tho­se sözünün hansı funksiyanı yerinə yetirdiyini təyin edin.

Упражнение 6. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния. Определите какую функцию выполняют слова that/those .

1. The doctor says that he knows this patient. 2. The bo­nes of the lower extremities articulate with the pelvic bo­nes, those of the upper extremities extend from the shoul­der girdle. 3. Through the centre of the vertebral co­lumn runs the canal that contains the spinal cord. 4. We li­ked that lecture very much. 5. The function of the liver is dif­ferent from that of the spleen. 6. That was the book he wan­ted.



Çalışma 7. Aşağıdakı eyniköklü sözləri oxuyun və onları tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 7. Прочтите и переведите сле­ду­ю­щие однокоренные группы слов.

muscle, muscular, musculature, musculation; 2. to close, to enclose, close, closely, closed, closing; 3. to contract, contracted, contracting, contractile, contraction; 4. to vary, variant, various, variable, variation, variety; 5. to connect, connecting, connection, connective


Çalışma 8. A mətnini tərcümə edin

Упражнение 8. Переведите текст А
Text А

Types of Muscles
1) The word «muscle», according to one theory, co­mes from a Latin word that means «little mouse»: that is when a man’s muscles are con­tracting they look as if a lit­tle mouse runs about under his skin. Accord­ing to another the­ory the word «muscle» comes from a Greek expres­sion that means «to enclose», that is layer of muscles enclose the body. We know that the muscles constitute ар­рro­x­im­ately 50 per cent of the total body weight, slightly more in the average male than the female. Tendons, fasciae and the various organs themselves depend on the mus­cular sys­tem and the function of muscle cells.

2. There are three main types of muscular tissue that we identify and classify on the basis of structure and functions:



  1. smooth or visceral muscle,

2) striated or skeletal muscle,

3) cardiac muscle.

3. Smooth muscles can contract slowly. They make up the walls of the internal organs such as those of the blood vessels, and the digestive tract. Since we identify the internal organs as viscera, we sometimes call smooth




Fig. 2. Types of muscles.


muscles visceral muscles. The visceral muscles react relatively slowly to changes within the body and do so without the intervention of the will.

The walls of the blood vessels are contracting or expanding when they respond to certain chemicals in the blood or in response to the effect of temperature but we cannot deliberately cause them to lift our arm or open our mouth. For this reason, we may call them involuntary muscles. Smooth muscle tissue consists of long cells. Smooth muscle fibres are bound into bundles by connective tissue which contain blood vessels and nerves.

4. Striated muscle tissue consists of large fibres in the form of bundles. Striated muscles are most necessary for manipulation of the bones of the skeleton. Those are the muscles necessary for walking, running, turning the head and so on. That’s why we sometimes call them skeletal muscles. This type of muscle tissue includes the large muscle masses of the body, the muscles of the arms, legs, back etc. It includes all those muscles which must react quickly to changes in the environment, i.e. those that become active through an effort of will. For this reason, we call striated muscles voluntary muscles.

5. Cardiac (heart) muscle is, in a sense, a cross between the previous two. A characteristic feature of cardiac muscle is that fibres have neither a beginning nor an end. In other words, the heart is simply a huge net of muscles in which all elements are continuous with each other. Cardiac muscles («heart» — Greek) have the strength and force of contraction of the skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle is under complete involuntary control. In that, it resembles visceral muscle.
Notes
1.etc. (Lat. et cetera) [it'setrə] = and so on və sair (и так далее)

2.i.e. (Lat. id est) - читается that is, namely то есть


Çalışma 9.1) A mətnini oxuyun və tərcümə edin. 4 və 5 ci abzasları yazılı tərcümə edin 2) A mətnində aşa­ğı­da­kı suallara cavab tapın və onları oxuyun

Упражнение 9.1) Прочтите и переведите текст А. Абзацы 4 и 5 переведите письменно. 2) Найдите в текс­те А ответы на следующие вопросы и зачи­тайте их.

1. How many types of muscular tissue are there? 2. How do we sometimes call smoth muscles? 3. What is the another name of striated muscles? 4. What is the dif­fe­ren­ce between the cardiac and skeletal muscles?


Çalışma 10. Verilmiş latın sözlərinin ingilis dilində ek­vivalentlərini tapın.

Упражнение 10. Подберите к латинским словам анг­лийские эквиваленты.
viscera heart

cardiac lower jaw

mandible internal organs

esophagus gullet


Çalışma 11. Aşağıdakı cümlələri oxuyun və ayrılmış söz­­lərin hansı nitq hissəsi olduğunu təyin edin, lüğətdən is­ti­fadə edərək onların mənalarını tapın. Cümlələri tər­cü­mə edin.

Упражнение 11. Прочтите следующие пред­ло­же­­ния и определите, какой частью речи являются вы­де­ленные слова, найдите их значение в словаре. Пере­ве­дите предложения.

1. The word «muscle» means «little mouse» in Latin. 2. A positive test means the presence of bacteria in the blood. 3. Tendons, fasciae, various organs and the bones function by means of muscles. 4. . Cardiac muscle is under involuntary control. 5. The involuntary muscles control the beating of the heart. 6. Nerve impulses cause the muscle to contract. 7. We do not know the cause of his illness.


Çalışma 12. Cümlələri oxuyun. Felləri Continuous zaman formalarında işlədərək mötərizələri açın..

Упражнение 12. Прочтите предложения, пос­та­вив глаголы, данные в скобках, в нужное по смыслу время группы Continuous. Переведите предложения.

1. The students (to work) in the physical laboratory from 9 to half past 10 yesterday. 2. When he came they (to classify) the bones of the upper extremities. 3. The walls of the blood vessels (to expand) when they respond to certain chemicals in the blood. 4. We (to discuss) the characteristic features of cardiac muscles now.


Çalışma 13. Verilmiş nümunəyə əsasən suallara cavab verin.

Упражнение13. Ответьте на вопросы по данному образцу:

Образец: Why can’t you go home? (to attend the lecture)

I cannot go home, because I must attend the lecture.

1. Why can’t you consult a doctor? (to go to the Institute) 2. Why can’t you give me your book? (to return it to the library) 3. Why can’t she finish her test? (to pre­pa­re for the examination)


Çalışma 14. Can, may modal felliəri işlənmiş cüm­lə­ləri azərbaycan dilinə tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 14. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния с модальными глаголами: can, may.

1. The joints between bones can move more or less ea­sily. 2. In the ear we can only see the external ear and the external passage.-3. We may call the humerus, arm­bo­ne, but there is no special name for radius. 4. We may use this drug three times a day.



Çalışma 15. Aşağıdakı cümlələri ingilis dilinə tər­cü­mə edin.

Упражнение 15. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния на английский язык.

1. По структуре и функции мышцы можно раз­де­лить на три груп­пы. 2. Гладкие мышцы сокращаются неп­роизвольно. 3. Соединитель­ная ткань гладких мы­шц включает нервы и кровеносные сосуды. 4. Попе­р­ечно-олосатые или скелетные мышцы реагируют на из­мене­ния в окружающей среде. 5. Волокна сердечной мы­шцы непрерывны


II hissə

Часть II



II hissəyə dair sözlər

Слова к части II
produce [prə'dju:s] v -buraxmaq, əmələ gətirmək, vermək (производить, образовывать, давать

consist [kən'sıst] v (of)-ibarət olmaq (состоять (из)

tongue [tΛŋ] n dil (язык)

larynx ['lærıŋks] n udlaq (гортань, глотк)

adult [ædΛlt] n böyük, həddi buluğa çatmış (взрослый, со­вер­шен­нолетний)

supply [sə'plaı] v təchiz etmək (снабжать, обеспе­чивать); n təchizat (снабжение, обеспечение)

complex [kmpləks] а mürəkkəb (сложный)

by means [mi:nz] of köməyi ilə (посредством, при помощи)

attach [ə'tæt∫] v (to) bərkitmək (прикреплять (к))

esophagus [ı'sfəgəs] n qida borusu (пищевод)

intestines [ın'testınz] n pi. bağırsaqlar (кишечник, кишки)

uterus ['ju:tərəs] n uşaqlıq (матка)

elongate ['elngeıt] v uzanmaq, uzatmaq (удлиняться)

vary [vεərı] dəyişmək (изменять(ся))

various [vεərıəs] а müxtəlif (различный)

nucleus [nju:klıəs] n nüvə (ядро)

both ... and... and [bouθ ənd] cj necə ki, həm ... həm (как ...так и ..., и ... и ...)

disturb [dis'tə:b] v pozmaq (нарушать)

disturbance [dis'tə:bəns] n pozulma (нарушение)

source [s:s] n mənbə (источник)

subject [səb'jekt] v tabe etmək, təsirə məruz etmək (подчинять, под­вергать воздействию)

subject [sΛbd3ıkt] n predmet, mövzu (предмет, тема)

reach [ri:t∫] nail olmaq (достигать)
Çalışmalar

Упражнения
Çalışma 1. Aşağıdakı sözləri tək və cəm halda oxu­yun.

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова в ед­­ин­с­твенном и множествен­ном числе:

ед. Число мн. число




nucleolus ['nju:klıələs]

  • nuclei [ai]

nucleus ['nju:klıəs]

- nucleoli [aı]

vertebra [ və:təbrə]

  • vertebrae [i:]

trabecula [trə'bekjulə]

  • trabeculae [i:]

fascia [feı∫ıə]

  • fasciae [i:]

Çalışma 2. As well (as) söz birləşməli cümlələri azərbaycan dilinə tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие пред­ло­жения со словосочетаниями as well (as).

1. Smooth muscles form the coat of some internal organs as well as a part of the capsule of the spleen. 2. Smooth muscles form the coat of some internal organs and a part of the capsule of the spleen as well. 3.You are to know physiology as well as anatomy.


Çalışma 3. B mətnini tərcümə edin

Упражнение 3. Переведите текста Б
Text В

Skeletal and Smooth Muscles
Muscles are the active part of the motor apparatus: their contractions are producing various movements, when they are active. Functionally we divide all muscles into two groups: voluntary and involuntary muscles.

Voluntary muscles consist of striated muscle tissue and contract by the will of the man. This group includes all the muscles of the head, trunk and extremities, i.e., the ske­letal muscles, as well as those of some internal organs (tongue, larynx, etc.). The skeletal muscles are the or­gans of the muscular system. There are more than 400 skeletal mus­cles in the human organism: in adults they make up about two-fifths of the total body weight. Each skeletal muscle has an arterial, venous, lym­phatic and nervous sup­ply. Muscles must always act in groups.



Skeletal muscles are complex in structure. They con­sist of muscle fibres of different length (up to 12 cm); the fibres are usually parallel to each other and are united in bun­dles. Each muscle con­tains many such bundles. There are tendons at the ends of muscles by means of which they are bound to bones.

Smooth muscles form the muscular coat of internal or­gans such as esophagus, stomach and intestines, blad­der, uterus and so on. They also form a part of the capsule and the trabeculae of the spleen; they are present as single cel­ls or as little cylindrical bundles of cells in the skin. They also form the walls of arteries, veins and some of the lar­ger lym­phatics. Smooth muscles are not rich in blood vessels, as are striated muscles. A smooth muscle is capable of spontaneous contraction and can contract in two ways. Firstly, individual cells may contract com­pletely and secondly, a wave of contractions may pass from one end of the muscle to the other. Smooth muscle cells are usually elongated cells. In the skin and intestines they are long and thin, but in the arteries they are short and thick. They vary in length from 12—15 mm in small blood vessels to 0,5 mm in the human uterus but their average length in an organ such as the intestine is about 200 m. These cells have an oval nucleus that encloses nucleoli, and when the cell is contracting the nucleus may become folded or twisted.

Muscles have both motor and sensory nerve fibres. Impulses (signals) about the state of the muscle reach the brain along the sensory fibres. The nerve impulses which cause the muscle to contract come from the brain along the motor fibres. Injury to the nerves which innervate mus­cles causes disturbances in voluntary movements (muscular paralysis).
Çalışma 4. Hər mülahizəni oxuyun. Mətndə bu mü­la­hi­zə­dəki fikri daha dolğun ifadə edən cümlələri tapın və onları oxuyun.

Упражнение 4. Прочтите каждое суждение. Най­ди­те в тексте предложения, более полно выр­ажающие мысль данного суждения, и прочтите их.

1. The skeletal muscles are the organs of muscles system. 2. Skeletal muscles are complex in structure. 3. Smo­oth muscles form the muscular coat of internal organs, blood vessels and skin. 4. Smooth muscles are capable of cdfhraction. 5. Smooth muscle cells have some characteristic features. 6. Muscles have nerve fibres.
Часть III

İkinci dərsə aid ümumiləşdirici yoxlama çalışmaları

Контрольно-обобщающие упражнения к уроку 2
Çalışma 1. Hansı cümlədə fel Con­tinuous zaman formasındadı.

Упражнение 1. Укажите, в каких предло­же­ниях гла­гол стоит в форме Con­tinuous.

1. The muscles are contracting under stimulation. 2. Striated muscle tissue consists of large fibres. 3. The walls of the blood vessels are con­tracting or expanding in response to a stimulus. 4. Striated muscles are necessary for manipulating the bones of the skeleton.
Çalışma 2. Modal felli cümlələri göstərin və tər­cü­mə edin.

Упражнение 2. Укажите и переведите пред­ло­же­ния с модальными глаголами.

1. The muscles which we can control are called the voluntary mus­cles. 2. We do not control smooth and cardiac muscles. 3. Each type of muscles must perform definite functions. 4. Involuntary muscles control all the processes of the body. 5. We may divide all muscles into two groups.
Çalışma 3. Hansı cümlələrdə that а) «ki»; b) «hansı ki» kimi tərcümə edilir; v) ismi əvəz edir.

Упражнение 3. Укажите, в каких пред­ло­же­ниях сл­о­во that переводится а) «что»; б) «который»; в) замещает существительное.

  1. We call the muscles that form internal organs are called visceral muscles. 2. We know that the cardiac muscle forms the heart. 3. The structure of smooth muscles differs from that of cardiac muscles.


LESSON THREE

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM


1.Perfekt zaman qrupu (Времена группы Perfect) (Active Voice)

2.Sifətin müqayisə dərəcələri (Cтепени сравнения прилагательных)



3.because, because of sözlərinin funksiyası və tərcüməsi

Функции и перевод слов because, because of


I Hissə

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