A. M. Cabbarov Rəyçilər: f e. d., professor M. Y. Qazıyeva




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§ 38 Functions and translation of “as”
As can perform different functions in the sentence:

1. as a preposition before the nouns: kimi (vəzifə) как, в качестве.

I work as a doctor. Mən həkim işləyirəm. Я работаю врачом.

2. as a part of composite prepositions: as to, as for görə, gəldikdə что касает­ся... .



As to me, I prefer to go home. Məncə evə getmək da­ha yaxşı olar. Что касается меня, я предпочитаю идти домой.

3. as a conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of cause: üçün, görə так как, поскольку.



As it is wet now, I will stay at home. Hava rütubətli ol­duğu üçün evdə qalacam. Так как сейчас сыро, я ост­ан­усь дома.

4. as a part of composite conjunctions: as... as kimi так же ... как, not so ... as kimi ... deyil не так... как, as long as hələ ki пока, as soon as kimi как только, as far as qədər насколько.



As soon as he came we began working. O, gələn kimi biz işə başladıq. Как только он при­шел, мы приступили к работе.

As long as you apply the old methods you’ll not be able to accom­plish this test. Hələ ki köhnə üsullardan istifadə edirsiz siz bu tədqiqatı tamamlaya bilməyəcəksiniz. До тех пор пока вы будете применять ус­таревшую методику, вы не сможете завер­шить это исследова­ние.
§ 39 Functions and translation of “due”
Due performs different functions in the sentence:

1. as an adjective: lazımi, lazım olan надлежащий, должный.

In due time the patient will be discharged from the hospital. Xəstə lazım olan vaxtda xəstəxanadan xaric olu­na­caq. Больной будет выпи­сан из больницы в на­д­ле­жа­щее время.

2. as a composite preposition: sayəsində, köməyilə, görə из-за, вследствие, ввиду, благодаря.

The heart attack was due to emotional stress. Ürək tutması emosional gərginlikdən (gərginliyə görə) olmuşdu. Сердечный приступ был вызван эмоцио­нальным напряже­нием.


§ 40 The Conjunction
The conjunction is a part of speech which denotes co­n­nections between objects and phenomena. It connects par­ts of the sentence, clauses and sentences.

According to their morphological structure conjunctions are divided into the following groups:

1. simple conjunctions: and, or, but, till, after, that, so, where, when, etc.

2. derivative conjunctions: until, unless, etc.

3. compound conjunctions: however, whereas, whe­re­ver, etc.

4. composite conjunctions: as well as, as long as, in case, for fear that, on the ground that, for the reason that, etc.

Some conjunctions are used in pairs: both … and, either … or, not only … but also, neither … nor, whether … or.

It was both cold and wet in the house. Ev həm soyuq həm də rütubətli idi. В доме было холод­но и сыро.

The professor is either in the ward or in the recep­tion room. Professor ya palatada, ya da ki, kabinetdədir. Про­фе­ссор находит­ся либо в палате, либо в кабинете.

As to their function conjunctions fall under two cla­sses:


1. coordinating conjunctions; 2. subordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions join coordinate clauses in a compound sentence, or homogeneous parts in a simple sen­tence, or independent sentences: and, but, either, both … and, etc.

Subordinating conjunctions join a subordinate or dep­endent clause to a principal clause or sometimes they join homogeneous parts: that, if, as, because, when, after, before, though, since, as if etc.

Nouns express substance whereas adjectives express the quality of substance.

He was white and jaded, as if he had not slept for many nights.

§ 41 The Preposition
The preposition is a part of speech which denotes the re­l­a­tions between objects and phenomena. It shows the re­la­tions between a noun or a pronoun and other words.

As to their morphological structure prepositions fall under the following groups:

1. simple: in, on, at, for, with, etc.

2. derivative: behind, below, across, along, etc

3. compound: inside, outside, within, without, etc.

4. composite: because of, in front of, in accordance with, etc.

According to their meaning prepositions may be divided into prepositions of place and direction (in, on, below, under, between, etc.), time (after, before, at, etc.), prepositions expressing abstract relations (by, with, because of, with a view to, etc.).

We called the doctor because he was complaining of a pain in his stomach.

The number of people suffering from heart disease has increased.

Some prepositions are homonymous with adverbs and conjunctions. For instance, the prepositions after and before are homonymous with the adverbs after and before and with the conjunctions after and before.

“Where do you intend to stay tonight?” she asked after a moment. (preposition)

There is an old saying that if a man has not fallen in love before forty, he had better not fall in love after. (adverb)



After the dinner was over they started to discuss business matters. (conjunction)

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Акушерство +СD. Клинические лекции. Под ред. О.В. макарова. 2007
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Внутренние болезни. 333 тестовые задачи и комментарии к ним. 2-е изд. Дворецкий Л.И., Михайлов А.А., Стрижова Н.В.,Чистова В.С.2008
Детская хирургическая стоматология и челюстно-лицевая хирургия (сборник иллюстрированных клинических задач и тестов). Под ред. О.З. Топольницкого, С.В. Дьяковой., В.П. Вашкевич. 2007
Классификация болезней. Симптомы и лечение (на английским языке, для студентов лечебных факулбтетов). Берзегова Л.Ю. 2008
Клиническая фармокология для студентов стоматологических факультетов. Верткин А.Л., Козлов С.Н. 2007
Клинический уход за хирургическими больными. Уроки доброты. Шевченко А.А. 2008
Латинский язык и фармацевтическая терминология. Зуева Н.И., Зуева И.В., Семенченко В.Ф. 2008

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Çapa məsul: Tofiq Məmmədov

Yığılmağa verilmişdir: 15.09.2012

Çapa imzalanmışdır: 28.11.2012

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