A. M. Cabbarov Rəyçilər: f e. d., professor M. Y. Qazıyeva




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Часть II

II hissəyə dair sözlər

Слова к части II

cure [kjuə] v müalicə etmək, вылечивать, излечивать

reveal [rı'vi:l] v aşkar etmək, açıqlamaq, обнаруживать, от­крывать

conduct [kən'dΛkt] v aparmaq, idarə etmək, вести, прово­дить (ис­сле­до-ва­ние и т.д.)

proper ['рr] а uyğun, münasib, правильный, над­лежащий

improper а yalnış, münasib olmayan, неподходящий, непра­вильный

improperly adv səhv, yalnış, неправильно, неверно
Çalışmalar

Упражнения
Çalışma 1. Aşağıdakı sözləri oxuyun və onları tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и пе­ре­­­ведите их на русский язык.

actually, crystalline, substance, combination, es­sen­tial, series, differ­ence, isolation, synthesis, diet, to pro­duce, product, spinach, cream, capsule, calcium, protein
Çalışma 2. Tərcüməsi sıranın əvvəlində olan sözü tapın. Bu sözləri tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 2. Найдите в данном ряду слово, перевод которого дан в начале ряда. Переведите дан­ные слова.

1. müalicə etmək, вылечивать — cure, curative, curable, cure; 2. mənbə, источник — sour, south, re­so­ur­ce, source; 3. aparmaq, idarə etmək, проводить – con­clu­de, conduct, convey, convoy; 4. ifadə etmək, означать — means, meaning, mean, main
Çalışma 3. Mətni oxuyun və tərcümə edin

Упражнение 3. Прочтите и переведи­те текст .
Text В
Vitamin means life. The story of vitamins actually begins in 1911, when a Polish chemist by the name of Kazimir Punk extracted from rice polishings a crystalline substance. This substance was capable to cure beri-beri. Analyses of these crystals revealed the presence of nitrogen in basic combination, i.e. the «amino»-nitrogen; Punk therefore called this substance «vita-mine». The root «vita» indicates that the substance is essential to life and health. In this way, the word vitamin was bom. For four years before Punk’s discovery a series of studies had begun in the USA to determine the value of cereals such as wheat, corn and oats as a cattle diet. Eventually it was found necessary to resort to rats to solve the problem of cereal differences.

Today the successful isolation and synthesis of many of the substanc­es has proved that vitamins are organic chemical compounds to be present in the diet for the maintenance of growth and health.

Vitamins are substances to be found in certain foods which are nec­essary for the growth, development and general health of the body. There are several different kinds of these protective substances to be provided in the diet. To make sure our bodies get all the vitamins they need, it is best to include several different vitamin-containing foods in the diet. Such foods include milk and many of the products made from it, all the green leafy vegetables like spinach, cabbage, lettuce, other I resh vegetables, fruit and fruit juices, whole-grained cereals, eggs and a number of others.

When we plan a nutrition program for any person, young and old, well and ill, we must know certain foods are the best sources each body requires.

  1. Vitamin A: fruits and vegetables, cream, butter or margarine, eggs and liver.

  2. The В vitamins: yeast, liver, whole-grained breads and cereals, milk, meat.

  3. Vitamin C: orange or grapefruit juice, any fresh raw fruit or vege­table, ascorbic acid tablets if needed.

  4. Vitamin D: fish-liver oil or vitamin-D capsule.

  5. Vitamin E: soy-bean oil, vegetables oils.

  6. Vitamin K: is produced by intestinal bacteria. The diet must be adequate in milk and unsaturated fatty acids and low in refined car­bohydrates; intestinal bacteria are increased by eating yogurt.

  7. Vitamin P (rutin): citrus fruits, especially le­mons.

  8. Calcium: milk, yogurt.

  9. Phosphorus: milk, eggs, cheese, meat.

  10. Iron: liver, yeast, meat, bread and cereals.

  11. Proteins: yeast, milk, yogurt, cheese, meat, fish, eg­gs.

  12. Liquids: milk, fruit, juices, soup, water.

Experts in the study of foods are constantly conducting experiments. They are making their discoveries public from time to time for such knowledge enables us to select the proper foods in order to protect us against the diseases. .



III hissə

Часть III

10-cu dərsə aid ümumiləşdirici yoxlama çalışmaları.

Контрольно-обобщающие упражнения

к уроку 10
Çalışma 1. Məsdərin təyin kimi işləndiyi cümlələri tapın və tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 1. Найдите и переведите пред­ло­же­ния, в которых инфинитив выполняет роль оп­ре­де­ле­ния.

1. The secret of a proper diet depends much on the ability of the cook or dietician to prepare and serve meals which are palatable and tasty to the individual. 2. Average intake of protein to maintain nitrogen equi­librium is 42 grams per day. 3. Practically all the chloride to be in­vol­ved in metabolism enters and leaves the body in com­bi­na­tion with sodium. 4. In order to use this drug you must consult your doctor. 5. In an experiment to measure the sensitivity of the reaction good results were achieved.
Çalışma 2. Bağlayıcısız a) təyin b) tamamlıq budaq cümlələri tapın və tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 2. Найдите и переведите бес­со­юз­ные придаточные предло­жения: а) определительные; б) дополнительные.

1. When the man smells something he likes to eat, the gastric juice is poured out in large quantities. 2. We know vitamin B1 is widely distribut­ed in nature occurring in most foods. 3. The cells select the amino acids they need and use them to construct new body tissue and such vital substances as antibodies, hormones, enzymes and blood cells. 4. The food we take and the air we breathe often contain poisonous substances and pathogenic microorganisms. 5. Chemical studies have shown vitamin D is exceedingly stable as regards oxidation and heating. 6. The four parts the pituitary consists of perform several functions and produce several secre­tions.
Çalışma 3. Hansı cümlələrdə for a) bağlayıcı b) sö­z­önü kimi çıxış edir.

Упражнение 3. Укажите, в каких предложениях for: а) союз; б) предлог.

1.The ordinary intake of vitamin A by most adults is sufficient to maintain their health in good condition for administration of this vitamin decreases the susceptibility to the “common cold ” (or lessens its severity). 2. Sci­en­tis­ts have studied the deficiency diseases for many years. 3. The importance of vitamin D for growth and nutrition was established as a result of a series of discoveries. 4. The cell is not isolated from the outer world by its mem­bra­ne, for it is entirely dependent this outer world. 5. Cotton thread is used for ligatures.
LESSON ELEVEN

THE EXCRETORY ORGANS
1.Mürəkkəb mübtəda

Сложное подлежащее

2. As well as, as well sözlərinin funksiası və tər­cü­mə­si

Функции и перевод слов as well as, as well
I hissə

Часть I

Слова к части I

I hissəyə dair sözlər
empty ['emptı] а boş (пустой; v опорожнять(ся), вы­­­ливать)

aproximate [ə'prksımıt] а təxminən (прибли зи­те­ль­ный)

approximately [a'prksımıtlı] adv təxminən (приб­ли­­зительн)

average ['ævərıd3] n orta среднее (число); v (miq­dar), orta hesabla təşkil etmək (составлять в среднем)

evaporate [ı'væpəreıt] v buxarlanmaq, buxara ver­mək (испарять(ся); выпаривать)

evaporation [ı,væpə'reı∫n] n buxarlanma, buxara ver­mə (испарение; выпаривание)

perspiration [,pə:spə'reı∫n] n tərləmə, tər (потение; пот; испарина)

intake ['ınteık] n udma, sorma, daxilə qəbul (пог­ло­ще­ние, всасывание, прием внутрь)

result [rı'zΛlt] (in) v приводить к чему-л.

frequency ['fri:kwənsı] n tezlik (частота)

urination [juərı'neı∫n] n sidik ifrazı (мо­чеис­пус­ка­ние)

pure [pjuə] а təmiz, чистый

overheating ['ouvə'hi:tıŋ] n çox qızma (перегрев, пе­регревание)
Çalışmalar

Упражнения
Çalışma 1. Aşağıdakı cümlələri tərcümə edin, mü­rək­kəb mübtədaları təyin edin.

Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния, определите сложное подлежащее.

  1. The body is known to utilize six kinds of food-stuffs – carbohy­drates, proteins, fats, water, mineral salts and vitamins. 2. When burned, the carbohydrates, proteins and fats are sure to yield a certain definite and measurable amount of heat energy. 3. Many substances which are readily absorbed by the organism prove to be harmful, and many harm­less substances prove to be difficult for the organism to absorb. 4. Pro­teins are found to be absolutely essential the proper nourishment of the human body. 5. Vitamin C appears to be lacking in seeds, white bread, fats, yeast, purified proteins and carbohydrates. 6. Vitamin D is known to be the antirachitic substance.


Çalışma 2. Aşağıdakı cümlələri tərcümə edin, as wellas well as sözlərinin hansı funksiyanı yerinə yetirdiyini təyin edin.

Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­­ния, определите, какую функцию выполняют слова as well и as well as.

  1. A calorie is a definite amount of heat as well as a centimetre is a definite amount of length. 2. The character of proper food substances for animals as well as for plants is different. 3. Every organism needs the organic materials to build new protoplasm and variety of purely inor­ganic substances as well. 4. Besides carbohydrates, proteins and fats, the food contains necessary mineral substances as well.


Çalışma 3. Aşağıdakı törəmə sözlərin əmələ gəldiyi sözləri tapın. Onları tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 3. Дайте исходные слова к сле­ду­ю­щим производным. Переведите их.

various, harmful, excretory, namely, greater, eva­po­ra­tion, frequency
Çalışma 4. Verilmiş söz qruplarını oxuyun və tər­cü­mə edin.

Упражнение 4. Прочтите и переведите данные гнез­­да слов.

1. empty, to empty, emptiness; 2. average, to aver­age; 3. vapour, to evaporate, evaporation, evaporable; 4. freq­uent, frequency, frequently; 5. urea, urine, urination, urinary, ureter, urethra, urology, uremia
Text А

Excretory Organs
1.Various harmful and unnecessary substances are continually being formed in the human body. These substances entering the blood are eliminated from the body by the excretory organs, namely the kidneys, the skin and the lungs; the latter are passing out carbon dioxide and water vapour. The quantity of water lost through the lungs probably varies within small limits only. The quantity lost through the sweat varies, of course, with temperature as well as with exercise. It may be said that the amounts of water secreted through the kidneys and skin are of an inverse proportion to each other, that is, the greater the amount lost through the skin, the less will be secreted by the kidneys.

2. Through these three organs but mainly through the kidneys blood is being continuously depleted of water and the loss must be made up by the ingestion of new wa­ter.



3. Most of the body wastes are found to be eliminated in the urine by the urinary organs. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. Urine is formed in the kidneys, which are the main organ of excretion. It then passes through the ureters into the urinary bladder which serves as a reservoir. The bladder is emptied through the urethra, which leads to the exterior of the body. The wastes are excreted as urine, which is normally composed of approximately 96 per cent water, plus urea and various salts. The urine appears density of to vary from 1.015 to 1.020; the Ph averages about 6. The healthy adult seems to excrete an average of about 1.5 litres of urine from the body daily. From 40 to 65 per cent of all fluid taken into the body is eliminat­ed as urine, the rest, by evaporation from the body surface, evaporation from the lungs, etc. When the loss of water through evaporation or perspiration is increased, as in summer months, the urine volume is reduced; if the water intake is increased, the volume of urine increases as well. 4. The combination of a warm, rainy day, increased liquid intake as well as moist air that prevents evaporation from the skin is likely to result in great frequency of urination.

5. The urine is being formed in the kidneys from many waste and harmful substances contained in the blood. Blood flows into the kidneys through the blood vessels. In the kidneys the blood is cleansed of these substances. Thus, the blood leaving the kidneys is pure while urine formed in the kidneys flows down special ducts – the ureters, passing into the bladder from which it is eliminated.

6. An excretory function is also performed by the skin. The skin being the cover of the body protects it from harmful external influence and serves at the same time as an excretory organ passing the sweat out.

7. Sweat is formed in tiny perspiration glands found in the skin. It consists of water in which substances similar to those in the urine are formed but in smaller quantities. The evaporation of perspiration is known to cool the body and protect it from overheat as well.


Çalışma 5. A mətnini oxuyun və tərcümə edin. Bi­rin­ci abzası yazılı tərcümə edin. the latter, through, only, that is, the greater...the less sözlərinin mənasını tapın və yadda saxlayın.

Упражнение 5. Прочтите и переведите текст А. Пер­вый абзац переведите письменно. Найдите и запомните значение слов the latter, through, only, that is, the greater ... the less.
Çalışma 6. A mətnində aşağıdakı suallara cavab tapın və onları oxuyun.
Упражнение 6. Найдите в тексте А ответы на следующие вопросы и прочтите их.
1. How are harmful substances eliminated from the body? 2. What organs pass out carbon dioxide and water vapor? 3. What are the organs of the urinary system? 4. How is water eliminated from the body? 5. When is the volume of urine increased or reduced? 6. What process takes place in the kidneys?
Çalışma 7. Hər bir sırada tərcüməsi öndə olan sözü ta­pın.

Упражнение 7. Найдите в каждом ряду слово, перевод которого дан в начале ряда.

1. xarici (внешний, наружный) – exterior, interior, exteriorly, exteriority; 2. normada (в норме) – normal, normality, normally; 3. vasitəsilə (посредством, путем) – throughout, through, though, throw; 4. təmizləmək, dezinfeksiya etmək (очищать, дезинфицировать)to clean, to claim, to cleanse, to clear
Çalışma 8. Aşağıdakı cümlələri tərcümə edin. Seçilmiş sözün hansı nitq hissəsi olduğunu təyin edin. Cümlələri tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 8. Прочтите следующие пред­ло­же­ния. Определите, какой частью речи являются вы­де­ле­н­ные слова. Переведите предложения.

1. Most of the body wastes are eliminated in the urine by the urinary organs. 2. The bladder is emptied through the urethra which leads to the exterior of the body. 3. The wastes are excreted as urine which is nor­mally composed of approximately 96 per cent of water plus urea and various salts. 4. In the kidneys the blood is cleansed оf harmful substanc­es. 5. Sweat is formed in tiny perspiration glands found in the skin.
Çalışma 9. Aşağıdakı cümlələrdə mübtədanın nə ilə ifadə olunduğunu təyin edin. Cümlələri tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 9. Определите, чем выражено под­ле­­жащее в следующих предложениях. Переведите данные предложения.

1. The rate of urinary flow is known to be increased by various agents known in medicine as diuretics. 2. Three hours after injection 38–45% of the injected mercury was found in the kidneys. 3. Renal tubular excretory transport of selected sulfonamides is assumed to require a, physicochemical interaction. 4. Under these conditions it was difficult to estimate the actual rate of tubular excretory transport. 5. The bladder is more likely to be affected with a direct pus–forming infection than by any other disease.'6. It is found that the process of urine sec­re­tion goes, on constantly at the rate of about a drop every thirty seconds from each kidney.
Çalışma 10. as well as as well sözləri işlənən cüm­lələri tərcümə edin.

Упражнение 10. Переведите следующие пред­ло­же­ния со словами as well as и as well.

1. The most important function of the kidneys is to remove urea from the blood as well as to maintain the proper balance of water, salts and acids in the body fluids. 2. Urinalysis is an examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements as well as the presence of diabetes mellitus. 3. The purpose of this study is to determine the simultaneous rates of bronchial and renal urea excretion as well. 4. Any doctor is responsible for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases as well.
II Hissə

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